Background Sustainable aquaculture relies on multiple factors, including water quality, fish diets, and farmed fish. Replacing fishmeal (FM) with alternative protein sources is key for improving sustainability in aquaculture and promoting fish health. Indeed, great research efforts have been made to evaluate novel feed formulations, focusing especially on the effects on the fish gut microbiome. Few studies have explored host-environment interactions. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of novel insect-based (Tenebrio molitor) fish diets on the microbiome at the water-fish interface in an engineered rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farming ecosystem. Using 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding, we comprehensively analyzed the microbiomes of water, tank biofilm, fish intestinal mucus, fish cutis, and feed samples.Results Core microbiome analysis revealed the presence of a highly reduced core shared by all sample sources, constituted by Aeromonas spp., in both the control and novel feed test groups. Network analysis showed that samples were clustered based on the sample source, with no significant differences related to the feed formulation tested. Thus, the different diets did not seem to affect the environment (water and tank biofilm) and fish (cutis and intestinal mucus) microbiomes. To disentangle the contribution of feed at a finer scale, we performed a differential abundance analysis and observed differential enrichment/impoverishment in specific taxa, comparing the samples belonging to the control diet group and the insect-based diet group.Conclusions Omic exploration of the water-fish interface exposes patterns that are otherwise undetected. These data demonstrate a link between the environment and fish and show that subtle but significant differences are caused by feed composition. Thus, the research presented here is a step towards positively influencing the aquaculture environment and its microbiome.

Bruno, A., Sandionigi, A., Panio, A., Rimoldi, S., Orizio, F., Agostinetto, G., et al. (2023). Aquaculture ecosystem microbiome at the water-fish interface: the case-study of rainbow trout fed with Tenebrio molitor novel diets. BMC MICROBIOLOGY, 23(1 (December 2023)) [10.1186/s12866-023-02990-y].

Aquaculture ecosystem microbiome at the water-fish interface: the case-study of rainbow trout fed with Tenebrio molitor novel diets

Bruno, A
Primo
;
Sandionigi, A
Secondo
;
Panio, A;Orizio, F;Agostinetto, G;Labra, M
Co-ultimo
2023

Abstract

Background Sustainable aquaculture relies on multiple factors, including water quality, fish diets, and farmed fish. Replacing fishmeal (FM) with alternative protein sources is key for improving sustainability in aquaculture and promoting fish health. Indeed, great research efforts have been made to evaluate novel feed formulations, focusing especially on the effects on the fish gut microbiome. Few studies have explored host-environment interactions. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of novel insect-based (Tenebrio molitor) fish diets on the microbiome at the water-fish interface in an engineered rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farming ecosystem. Using 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding, we comprehensively analyzed the microbiomes of water, tank biofilm, fish intestinal mucus, fish cutis, and feed samples.Results Core microbiome analysis revealed the presence of a highly reduced core shared by all sample sources, constituted by Aeromonas spp., in both the control and novel feed test groups. Network analysis showed that samples were clustered based on the sample source, with no significant differences related to the feed formulation tested. Thus, the different diets did not seem to affect the environment (water and tank biofilm) and fish (cutis and intestinal mucus) microbiomes. To disentangle the contribution of feed at a finer scale, we performed a differential abundance analysis and observed differential enrichment/impoverishment in specific taxa, comparing the samples belonging to the control diet group and the insect-based diet group.Conclusions Omic exploration of the water-fish interface exposes patterns that are otherwise undetected. These data demonstrate a link between the environment and fish and show that subtle but significant differences are caused by feed composition. Thus, the research presented here is a step towards positively influencing the aquaculture environment and its microbiome.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
16S rRNA gene; Aquaculture; Built environment; Insect feed; Microbiome; Rainbow trout;
English
6-set-2023
2023
23
1 (December 2023)
248
open
Bruno, A., Sandionigi, A., Panio, A., Rimoldi, S., Orizio, F., Agostinetto, G., et al. (2023). Aquaculture ecosystem microbiome at the water-fish interface: the case-study of rainbow trout fed with Tenebrio molitor novel diets. BMC MICROBIOLOGY, 23(1 (December 2023)) [10.1186/s12866-023-02990-y].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/440338
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