The Amazon is the largest river by discharge volume and one of the most biodiverse biomes in the world. Lately, there has been a rapid increase of the urban population in the region, which has been translated into a growing emission of organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into surface water bodies. This study provides the most comprehensive evaluation of the PAH contamination levels in surface waters of the Amazon basin. We investigated the occurrence and potential sources of 16 priority PAHs and characterised their risks for freshwater ecosystems. For this, we took 40 water samples from different sites along the Brazilian part of the Amazon River, including three major tributaries, and smaller rivers crossing the main urban areas. The results of this study show that PAHs are widespread contaminants in rivers of the Brazilian Amazon. The sum of the total concentration of the 16 priority PAHs reached values of 134 ng L−1 in the Amazon River, and 163 ng L−1 near densely populated areas. On the other hand, the total PAH concentration was generally lower in the monitored tributaries. In most samples, the contamination pattern was dominated by high molecular weight PAHs, suggesting a major contribution of pyrogenic sources, although petrogenic contamination was also present in some locations near urban areas. We assessed ecological risks posed by PAH mixtures using a hazard index. The results indicated that PAH contamination is not likely to pose direct toxic effects for Amazonian freshwater organisms, however continued monitoring is recommended near densely populated areas.

Rizzi, C., Villa, S., Waichman, A., de Souza Nunes, G., de Oliveira, R., Vighi, M., et al. (2023). Occurrence, sources, and ecological risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Amazon river. CHEMOSPHERE, 336(September 2023) [10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.139285].

Occurrence, sources, and ecological risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Amazon river

Rizzi, C
Primo
;
Villa, S;Vighi, M;
2023

Abstract

The Amazon is the largest river by discharge volume and one of the most biodiverse biomes in the world. Lately, there has been a rapid increase of the urban population in the region, which has been translated into a growing emission of organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into surface water bodies. This study provides the most comprehensive evaluation of the PAH contamination levels in surface waters of the Amazon basin. We investigated the occurrence and potential sources of 16 priority PAHs and characterised their risks for freshwater ecosystems. For this, we took 40 water samples from different sites along the Brazilian part of the Amazon River, including three major tributaries, and smaller rivers crossing the main urban areas. The results of this study show that PAHs are widespread contaminants in rivers of the Brazilian Amazon. The sum of the total concentration of the 16 priority PAHs reached values of 134 ng L−1 in the Amazon River, and 163 ng L−1 near densely populated areas. On the other hand, the total PAH concentration was generally lower in the monitored tributaries. In most samples, the contamination pattern was dominated by high molecular weight PAHs, suggesting a major contribution of pyrogenic sources, although petrogenic contamination was also present in some locations near urban areas. We assessed ecological risks posed by PAH mixtures using a hazard index. The results indicated that PAH contamination is not likely to pose direct toxic effects for Amazonian freshwater organisms, however continued monitoring is recommended near densely populated areas.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Brazil; Ecological risk assessment; Freshwater ecosystems; PAHs; Water quality monitoring;
English
21-giu-2023
2023
336
September 2023
139285
open
Rizzi, C., Villa, S., Waichman, A., de Souza Nunes, G., de Oliveira, R., Vighi, M., et al. (2023). Occurrence, sources, and ecological risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Amazon river. CHEMOSPHERE, 336(September 2023) [10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.139285].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/468901
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