Background: Right heart failure (RHF) is associated with a dismal prognosis in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Exercise right heart catheterization may unmask right heart maladaptation as a sign of RHF. We sought to (1) define the normal limits of right atrial pressure (RAP) increase during exercise; (2) describe the right heart adaptation to exercise in PH owing to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (PH-HFpEF) and in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); and (3) identify the factors associated with right heart maladaptation during exercise. Methods and results: We analyzed rest and exercise right heart catheterization from patients with PH-HFpEF and PAH. Right heart adaptation was described by absolute or cardiac output (CO)-normalized changes of RAP during exercise. Individuals with noncardiac dyspnea (NCD) served to define abnormal RAP responses (>97.5th percentile). Thirty patients with PH-HFpEF, 30 patients with PAH, and 21 patients with NCD were included. PH-HFpEF were older than PAH, with more cardiovascular comorbidities, and a higher prevalence of severe tricuspid regurgitation (P < .05). The upper limit of normal for peak RAP and RAP/CO slope in NCD were >12 mm Hg and ≥1.30 mm Hg/L/min, respectively. PH-HFpEF had higher peak RAP and RAP/CO slope than PAH (20 mm Hg [16-24 mm Hg] vs 12 mm Hg [9-19 mm Hg] and 3.47 mm Hg/L/min [2.02-6.19 mm Hg/L/min] vs 1.90 mm Hg/L/min [1.01-4.29 mm Hg/L/min], P < .05). A higher proportion of PH-HFpEF had RAP/CO slope and peak RAP above normal (P < .001). Estimated stressed blood volume at peak exercise was higher in PH-HFpEF than PAH (P < .05). In the whole PH cohort, the RAP/CO slope was associated with age, the rate of increase in estimated stressed blood volume during exercise, severe tricuspid regurgitation, and right atrial dilation. Conclusions: Patients with PH-HFpEF display a steeper increase of RAP during exercise than those with PAH. Preload-mediated mechanisms may play a role in the development of exercise-induced RHF.

Baratto, C., Caravita, S., Dewachter, C., Faini, A., Perego, G., Bondue, A., et al. (2023). Right Heart Adaptation to Exercise in Pulmonary Hypertension: An Invasive Hemodynamic Study. JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE, 29(9 (September 2023)), 1261-1272 [10.1016/j.cardfail.2023.04.009].

Right Heart Adaptation to Exercise in Pulmonary Hypertension: An Invasive Hemodynamic Study

Baratto C.;Caravita S.
;
Faini A.;Perego g. B.;Senni M.;Muraru D.;Badano L;Parati G.;
2023

Abstract

Background: Right heart failure (RHF) is associated with a dismal prognosis in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Exercise right heart catheterization may unmask right heart maladaptation as a sign of RHF. We sought to (1) define the normal limits of right atrial pressure (RAP) increase during exercise; (2) describe the right heart adaptation to exercise in PH owing to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (PH-HFpEF) and in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); and (3) identify the factors associated with right heart maladaptation during exercise. Methods and results: We analyzed rest and exercise right heart catheterization from patients with PH-HFpEF and PAH. Right heart adaptation was described by absolute or cardiac output (CO)-normalized changes of RAP during exercise. Individuals with noncardiac dyspnea (NCD) served to define abnormal RAP responses (>97.5th percentile). Thirty patients with PH-HFpEF, 30 patients with PAH, and 21 patients with NCD were included. PH-HFpEF were older than PAH, with more cardiovascular comorbidities, and a higher prevalence of severe tricuspid regurgitation (P < .05). The upper limit of normal for peak RAP and RAP/CO slope in NCD were >12 mm Hg and ≥1.30 mm Hg/L/min, respectively. PH-HFpEF had higher peak RAP and RAP/CO slope than PAH (20 mm Hg [16-24 mm Hg] vs 12 mm Hg [9-19 mm Hg] and 3.47 mm Hg/L/min [2.02-6.19 mm Hg/L/min] vs 1.90 mm Hg/L/min [1.01-4.29 mm Hg/L/min], P < .05). A higher proportion of PH-HFpEF had RAP/CO slope and peak RAP above normal (P < .001). Estimated stressed blood volume at peak exercise was higher in PH-HFpEF than PAH (P < .05). In the whole PH cohort, the RAP/CO slope was associated with age, the rate of increase in estimated stressed blood volume during exercise, severe tricuspid regurgitation, and right atrial dilation. Conclusions: Patients with PH-HFpEF display a steeper increase of RAP during exercise than those with PAH. Preload-mediated mechanisms may play a role in the development of exercise-induced RHF.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Pulmonary hypertension; exercise; heart failure; right atrial pressure; right heart catheterization;
English
5-mag-2023
2023
29
9 (September 2023)
1261
1272
none
Baratto, C., Caravita, S., Dewachter, C., Faini, A., Perego, G., Bondue, A., et al. (2023). Right Heart Adaptation to Exercise in Pulmonary Hypertension: An Invasive Hemodynamic Study. JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE, 29(9 (September 2023)), 1261-1272 [10.1016/j.cardfail.2023.04.009].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/423560
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