Zinc oxide (ZnO) is the most efficient curing activator employed in the industrial rubber production. However, ZnO and Zn(II) ions are largely recognized as an environmental hazard being toxic to aquatic organisms, especially considering Zn(II) release during tire lifecycle. In this context, aiming at reducing the amount of microcrystalline ZnO, a novel activator was recently synthetized, constituted by ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) anchored to silica NPs (ZnO-NP@SiO2-NP). The objective of this work is to define the possible hazards deriving from the use of ZnO-NP@SiO2-NP compared to ZnO and SiO2 NPs traditionally used in the tire industry. The safety of the novel activators was assessed by in vitro testing, using human lung epithelial (A549) and immune (THP-1) cells, and by the in vivo model zebrafish (Danio rerio). The novel manufactured nanomaterial was characterized morphologically and structurally, and its effects evaluated in vitro by the measurement of the cell viability and the release of inflammatory mediators, while in vivo by the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) test. Resulting data demonstrated that ZnO-NP@SiO2-NP, despite presenting some subtoxic events, exhibits the lack of acute effects both in vitro and in vivo, supporting the safe-by-design development of this novel material for the rubber industry.

Bragato, C., Mostoni, S., D’Abramo, C., Gualtieri, M., Pomilla, F., Scotti, R., et al. (2022). On the In Vitro and In Vivo Hazard Assessment of a Novel Nanomaterial to Reduce the Use of Zinc Oxide in the Rubber Vulcanization Process. TOXICS, 10(12) [10.3390/toxics10120781].

On the In Vitro and In Vivo Hazard Assessment of a Novel Nanomaterial to Reduce the Use of Zinc Oxide in the Rubber Vulcanization Process

Bragato, Cinzia
;
Mostoni, Silvia;D’Abramo, Christian;Gualtieri, Maurizio;Pomilla, Francesca Rita;Scotti, Roberto
Co-ultimo
;
Mantecca, Paride
Co-ultimo
2022

Abstract

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is the most efficient curing activator employed in the industrial rubber production. However, ZnO and Zn(II) ions are largely recognized as an environmental hazard being toxic to aquatic organisms, especially considering Zn(II) release during tire lifecycle. In this context, aiming at reducing the amount of microcrystalline ZnO, a novel activator was recently synthetized, constituted by ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) anchored to silica NPs (ZnO-NP@SiO2-NP). The objective of this work is to define the possible hazards deriving from the use of ZnO-NP@SiO2-NP compared to ZnO and SiO2 NPs traditionally used in the tire industry. The safety of the novel activators was assessed by in vitro testing, using human lung epithelial (A549) and immune (THP-1) cells, and by the in vivo model zebrafish (Danio rerio). The novel manufactured nanomaterial was characterized morphologically and structurally, and its effects evaluated in vitro by the measurement of the cell viability and the release of inflammatory mediators, while in vivo by the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) test. Resulting data demonstrated that ZnO-NP@SiO2-NP, despite presenting some subtoxic events, exhibits the lack of acute effects both in vitro and in vivo, supporting the safe-by-design development of this novel material for the rubber industry.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET); in vitro and in vivo models; inflammatory mediators; manufactured nanomaterials; nano-safety
English
2022
Bragato, C., Mostoni, S., D’Abramo, C., Gualtieri, M., Pomilla, F., Scotti, R., et al. (2022). On the In Vitro and In Vivo Hazard Assessment of a Novel Nanomaterial to Reduce the Use of Zinc Oxide in the Rubber Vulcanization Process. TOXICS, 10(12) [10.3390/toxics10120781].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/399854
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