A consistent finding in the Stroop literature is that congruency effects (i.e., the color-naming latency difference between words presented in incongruent vs. congruent colors) are larger for mostly-congruent items (e.g., the word RED presented most often in red) than for mostly-incongruent items (e.g., the word GREEN presented most often in yellow). This "item-specific proportion-congruent effect" might be produced by a conflictadaptation process (e.g., fully focus attention to the color when the word GREEN appears) and/or by a more general learning mechanism of stimulus-response contingencies (e.g., respond "yellow" when the word GREEN appears). Under the assumption that limited-capacity resources are necessary for learning stimulusresponse contingencies, we examined the contingency-learning account using both Stroop and nonconflict (i.e., noncolor words written in colors) versions of a color identification task while participants maintained a working memory (WM) load. Consistent with the contingency-learning account, WM load modulated people's ability to learn contingencies in the nonconflict task. In contrast, across 3 experiments, WM load did not affect the item-specific proportion-congruent effect in the Stroop task even though we employed a design (the "2-item set" design) in which contingency learning should be the dominant process. These results imply that the item-specific proportion-congruent effect is not merely a byproduct of contingency learning but a manifestation of reactive control, a mode of control engagement that may be especially useful when WM resources are scarce.

Spinelli, G., Krishna, K., Perry, J., Lupker, S. (2020). Working Memory Load Dissociates Contingency Learning and Item-Specific Proportion-Congruent Effects. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION, 46(11), 2007-2033 [10.1037/xlm0000934].

Working Memory Load Dissociates Contingency Learning and Item-Specific Proportion-Congruent Effects

Spinelli G.;
2020

Abstract

A consistent finding in the Stroop literature is that congruency effects (i.e., the color-naming latency difference between words presented in incongruent vs. congruent colors) are larger for mostly-congruent items (e.g., the word RED presented most often in red) than for mostly-incongruent items (e.g., the word GREEN presented most often in yellow). This "item-specific proportion-congruent effect" might be produced by a conflictadaptation process (e.g., fully focus attention to the color when the word GREEN appears) and/or by a more general learning mechanism of stimulus-response contingencies (e.g., respond "yellow" when the word GREEN appears). Under the assumption that limited-capacity resources are necessary for learning stimulusresponse contingencies, we examined the contingency-learning account using both Stroop and nonconflict (i.e., noncolor words written in colors) versions of a color identification task while participants maintained a working memory (WM) load. Consistent with the contingency-learning account, WM load modulated people's ability to learn contingencies in the nonconflict task. In contrast, across 3 experiments, WM load did not affect the item-specific proportion-congruent effect in the Stroop task even though we employed a design (the "2-item set" design) in which contingency learning should be the dominant process. These results imply that the item-specific proportion-congruent effect is not merely a byproduct of contingency learning but a manifestation of reactive control, a mode of control engagement that may be especially useful when WM resources are scarce.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Conflict adaptation; Contingency learning; Proportion-congruent effect; Stroop; Working memory;
English
2007
2033
27
Spinelli, G., Krishna, K., Perry, J., Lupker, S. (2020). Working Memory Load Dissociates Contingency Learning and Item-Specific Proportion-Congruent Effects. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION, 46(11), 2007-2033 [10.1037/xlm0000934].
Spinelli, G; Krishna, K; Perry, J; Lupker, S
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/397519
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