Aims: Interstitial pneumonia due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often complicated by severe respiratory failure. In addition to reduced lung compliance and ventilation/perfusion mismatch, a blunted hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction has been hypothesized, that could explain part of the peculiar pathophysiology of the COVID-19 cardiorespiratory syndrome. However, no invasive haemodynamic characterization of COVID-19 patients has been reported so far. Methods and results: Twenty-one mechanically-ventilated COVID-19 patients underwent right heart catheterization. Their data were compared both with those obtained from non-mechanically ventilated paired control subjects matched for age, sex and body mass index, and with pooled data of 1937 patients with ‘typical’ acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from a systematic literature review. Cardiac index was higher in COVID-19 patients than in controls [3.8 (2.7–4.5) vs. 2.4 (2.1–2.8) L/min/m2, P < 0.001], but slightly lower than in ARDS patients (P = 0.024). Intrapulmonary shunt and lung compliance were inversely related in COVID-19 patients (r = −0.57, P = 0.011) and did not differ from ARDS patients. Despite this, pulmonary vascular resistance of COVID-19 patients was normal, similar to that of control subjects [1.6 (1.1–2.5) vs. 1.6 (0.9–2.0) WU, P = 0.343], and lower than reported in ARDS patients (P < 0.01). Pulmonary hypertension was present in 76% of COVID-19 patients and in 19% of control subjects (P < 0.001), and it was always post-capillary. Pulmonary artery wedge pressure was higher in COVID-19 than in ARDS patients, and inversely related to lung compliance (r = −0.46, P = 0.038). Conclusions: The haemodynamic profile of COVID-19 patients needing mechanical ventilation is characterized by combined cardiopulmonary alterations. Low pulmonary vascular resistance, coherent with a blunted hypoxic vasoconstriction, is associated with high cardiac output and post-capillary pulmonary hypertension, that could eventually contribute to lung stiffness and promote a vicious circle between the lung and the heart.

Caravita, S., Baratto, C., Di Marco, F., Calabrese, A., Balestrieri, G., Russo, F., et al. (2020). Haemodynamic characteristics of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation. An invasive assessment using right heart catheterization. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HEART FAILURE, 22(12), 2228-2237 [10.1002/ejhf.2058].

Haemodynamic characteristics of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation. An invasive assessment using right heart catheterization

Caravita S.;Baratto C.;Calabrese A.;Faini A.;Soranna D.;Perego G. B.;Badano L;Lorini F. L.;Parati G.
;
Senni M.
2020

Abstract

Aims: Interstitial pneumonia due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often complicated by severe respiratory failure. In addition to reduced lung compliance and ventilation/perfusion mismatch, a blunted hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction has been hypothesized, that could explain part of the peculiar pathophysiology of the COVID-19 cardiorespiratory syndrome. However, no invasive haemodynamic characterization of COVID-19 patients has been reported so far. Methods and results: Twenty-one mechanically-ventilated COVID-19 patients underwent right heart catheterization. Their data were compared both with those obtained from non-mechanically ventilated paired control subjects matched for age, sex and body mass index, and with pooled data of 1937 patients with ‘typical’ acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from a systematic literature review. Cardiac index was higher in COVID-19 patients than in controls [3.8 (2.7–4.5) vs. 2.4 (2.1–2.8) L/min/m2, P < 0.001], but slightly lower than in ARDS patients (P = 0.024). Intrapulmonary shunt and lung compliance were inversely related in COVID-19 patients (r = −0.57, P = 0.011) and did not differ from ARDS patients. Despite this, pulmonary vascular resistance of COVID-19 patients was normal, similar to that of control subjects [1.6 (1.1–2.5) vs. 1.6 (0.9–2.0) WU, P = 0.343], and lower than reported in ARDS patients (P < 0.01). Pulmonary hypertension was present in 76% of COVID-19 patients and in 19% of control subjects (P < 0.001), and it was always post-capillary. Pulmonary artery wedge pressure was higher in COVID-19 than in ARDS patients, and inversely related to lung compliance (r = −0.46, P = 0.038). Conclusions: The haemodynamic profile of COVID-19 patients needing mechanical ventilation is characterized by combined cardiopulmonary alterations. Low pulmonary vascular resistance, coherent with a blunted hypoxic vasoconstriction, is associated with high cardiac output and post-capillary pulmonary hypertension, that could eventually contribute to lung stiffness and promote a vicious circle between the lung and the heart.
No
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Scientifica
Acute respiratory distress syndrome; COVID-19; Haemodynamics; Heart failure; Pulmonary hypertension;
English
Caravita, S., Baratto, C., Di Marco, F., Calabrese, A., Balestrieri, G., Russo, F., et al. (2020). Haemodynamic characteristics of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation. An invasive assessment using right heart catheterization. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HEART FAILURE, 22(12), 2228-2237 [10.1002/ejhf.2058].
Caravita, S; Baratto, C; Di Marco, F; Calabrese, A; Balestrieri, G; Russo, F; Faini, A; Soranna, D; Perego, G; Badano, L; Grazioli, L; Lorini, F; Parati, G; Senni, M
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10281/299812
Citazioni
  • Scopus 41
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 41
Social impact