Several studies have indicated the presence of contaminants in Alpine aquatic ecosystems. Even if measured concentrations are far below those that cause acute effects, continuous exposure to sub-lethal concentrations may have detrimental effects on the aquatic species present in these remote environments. This may lead to a cascade of indirect effects at higher levels of the ecological hierarchy (i.e., the community). To improve the determination of ecologically relevant risk endpoints, behavioural alterations in organisms due to pollutants are increasingly studied in ecotoxicology. In fact, behaviour links physiological function with ecological processes, and can be very sensitive to environmental stimuli and chemical exposure. This is the first study on behavioural alteration in a wild population of an Alpine species. In the present study, a video tracking system was standardized and subsequently used to identify contaminant-induced behavioural alterations in Diamesa zernyi larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae). Diamesa zernyi larvae, collected in an Italian Alpine stream (Rio Presena, Trentino Region), were acclimated for 24 h and successively exposed to several aquatic contaminants (pesticides: chlorpyrifos, metolachlor, boscalid, captan; pharmaceuticals: ibuprofen, furosemide, trimethoprim) at concentrations corresponding to their Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC). After 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure, changes in the distance moved, the average speed, and the frequency of body bends were taken to reflect contaminant- and time-dependent effects on larval behaviour. In general, metolachlor, captan, and trimethoprim tended to reduce all the endpoints under consideration, whereas chlorpyrifos, boscalid, ibuprofen, and furosemide seemed to increase the distances moved by the larvae. This could be related to the different mechanisms of action of the investigated chemicals. Independently of the contaminant, after 72 h a general slowing down of all the behavioural activities occurred. Finally, we propose a behavioural stress indicator to compare the overall behavioural effects induced by the various contaminants. Sub-lethal concentrations of pharmaceuticals and pesticides induce significant behavioural changes on Diamesa zernyi.

Villa, S., Di Nica, V., Pescatore, T., Bellamoli, F., Miari, F., Finizio, A., et al. (2018). Comparison of the behavioural effects of pharmaceuticals and pesticides on Diamesa zernyi larvae (Chironomidae). ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, 238, 130-139 [10.1016/j.envpol.2018.03.029].

Comparison of the behavioural effects of pharmaceuticals and pesticides on Diamesa zernyi larvae (Chironomidae)

Villa, Sara
Primo
;
Di Nica, Valeria
;
Finizio, Antonio
Penultimo
;
2018

Abstract

Several studies have indicated the presence of contaminants in Alpine aquatic ecosystems. Even if measured concentrations are far below those that cause acute effects, continuous exposure to sub-lethal concentrations may have detrimental effects on the aquatic species present in these remote environments. This may lead to a cascade of indirect effects at higher levels of the ecological hierarchy (i.e., the community). To improve the determination of ecologically relevant risk endpoints, behavioural alterations in organisms due to pollutants are increasingly studied in ecotoxicology. In fact, behaviour links physiological function with ecological processes, and can be very sensitive to environmental stimuli and chemical exposure. This is the first study on behavioural alteration in a wild population of an Alpine species. In the present study, a video tracking system was standardized and subsequently used to identify contaminant-induced behavioural alterations in Diamesa zernyi larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae). Diamesa zernyi larvae, collected in an Italian Alpine stream (Rio Presena, Trentino Region), were acclimated for 24 h and successively exposed to several aquatic contaminants (pesticides: chlorpyrifos, metolachlor, boscalid, captan; pharmaceuticals: ibuprofen, furosemide, trimethoprim) at concentrations corresponding to their Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC). After 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure, changes in the distance moved, the average speed, and the frequency of body bends were taken to reflect contaminant- and time-dependent effects on larval behaviour. In general, metolachlor, captan, and trimethoprim tended to reduce all the endpoints under consideration, whereas chlorpyrifos, boscalid, ibuprofen, and furosemide seemed to increase the distances moved by the larvae. This could be related to the different mechanisms of action of the investigated chemicals. Independently of the contaminant, after 72 h a general slowing down of all the behavioural activities occurred. Finally, we propose a behavioural stress indicator to compare the overall behavioural effects induced by the various contaminants. Sub-lethal concentrations of pharmaceuticals and pesticides induce significant behavioural changes on Diamesa zernyi.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Scientifica
Behaviour; ImageJ/wrMTrck; Non-biting midges; Pesticides; Pharmaceutical products; Sub-lethal effects; Video tracking;
Behaviour; ImageJ/wrMTrck; Non-biting midges; Pesticides; Pharmaceutical products; Sub-lethal effects; Video tracking
English
Villa, S., Di Nica, V., Pescatore, T., Bellamoli, F., Miari, F., Finizio, A., et al. (2018). Comparison of the behavioural effects of pharmaceuticals and pesticides on Diamesa zernyi larvae (Chironomidae). ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, 238, 130-139 [10.1016/j.envpol.2018.03.029].
Villa, S; Di Nica, V; Pescatore, T; Bellamoli, F; Miari, F; Finizio, A; Lencioni, V
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10281/192638
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