Experiences of social exclusion, including ostracism and rejection, can last anywhere from a few seconds to many years. Most research focused on short-term social exclusion, whereas virtually no empirical work has investigated the experiences of long-term social exclusion. Williams theorized that prolonged experiences of social exclusion (i.e., ostracism) would cause individuals to pass from the reflexive and reflective stages to the resignation stage characterized by the inability to recover threatened psychological needs and feelings of alienation, unworthiness, helplessness, and depression. Across two studies, we explored this prediction—and, in light of pain overlap theories, considered the possibility that chronic exclusion and chronic pain induce common psychological responses. Study 1 consisted of a quasi-experimental study involving five groups of participants: (1) those with chronic experiences of social exclusion (n = 82), (2) those with chronic physical pain (n = 82), (3) those with chronic hypertension (n = 69), (4) those with chronic kidney disease (n = 60), and (5) a group of healthy people (n = 83). Participants filled out a questionnaire including measures of need threat, negative emotions, and the four key outcomes linked to the resignation stage (i.e., alienation, unworthiness, helplessness, and depression). Although our data showed little evidence to support the psychological overlap between chronic exclusion and chronic physical pain, the results suggested that chronic experiences of social exclusion were associated with higher levels of negative emotions and resignation stage outcomes compared to participants in all the other groups. Furthermore, we found that threatened psychological needs mediated the effect of social exclusion on the resignation stage outcomes. Study 2 tested, but found no support for, the possibility that acute experiences of social exclusion could increase the resignation stage outcomes. Overall, our research indicates that when people are exposed to short-term exclusion, they recover their threatened psychological needs. However, when enduring chronic social exclusion, they do not, and enter the resignation stage.
Riva, P., Montali, L., Wirth, J., Curioni, S., & Williams, K. (2017). Chronic social exclusion and evidence for the resignation stage: An empirical investigation. JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS, 34(4), 541-564.
|Citazione:||Riva, P., Montali, L., Wirth, J., Curioni, S., & Williams, K. (2017). Chronic social exclusion and evidence for the resignation stage: An empirical investigation. JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS, 34(4), 541-564.|
|Tipo:||Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico|
|Carattere della pubblicazione:||Scientifica|
|Presenza di un coautore afferente ad Istituzioni straniere:||Si|
|Titolo:||Chronic social exclusion and evidence for the resignation stage: An empirical investigation|
|Autori:||Riva, P; Montali, L; Wirth, J; Curioni, S; Williams, K|
RIVA, PAOLO (Primo) (Corresponding)
MONTALI, LORENZO (Secondo)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Rivista:||JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407516644348|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su rivista|