Tuberculosis (TB) can develop soon after antiretroviral treatment initiation, as the result of restoration of the anti-TB specific immune response. This form of the disease is often defined as "unmasked TB", and it represents a major challenge for severely immune-suppressed HIV-infected subjects initiating treatment. Emergence of previously unrecognised TB disease occurs frequently in countries where TB/HIV co-infection is common, and where antiretroviral treatment has become increasingly accessible. The challenges posed by unmasked TB, such as its high incidence, the lack of reliable diagnostic tools and the uncertainties on its optimal management, may hamper our ability to face the TB/HIV epidemic. Therefore, unmasked TB appears a major threat to global health and poses additional barriers to successful HIV/AIDS care and treatment programmes. This review focuses on the epidemiology, immunopathogenesis and clinical manifestations of unmasked TB, and provides evidence-based recommendations for management and care of the disease. Copyright©ERS 2012.

Lapadula, G., Soria, A., Bandera, A., Squillace, N., Sabbatini, F., Franzetti, F., et al. (2012). Unmasking tuberculosis in the era of antiretroviral treatment. EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, 39(5), 1064-1075 [10.1183/09031936.00116611].

Unmasking tuberculosis in the era of antiretroviral treatment

LAPADULA, GIUSEPPE
;
SORIA, ALESSANDRO
Secondo
;
BANDERA, ALESSANDRA;SQUILLACE, NICOLA;GORI, ANDREA
Ultimo
2012

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) can develop soon after antiretroviral treatment initiation, as the result of restoration of the anti-TB specific immune response. This form of the disease is often defined as "unmasked TB", and it represents a major challenge for severely immune-suppressed HIV-infected subjects initiating treatment. Emergence of previously unrecognised TB disease occurs frequently in countries where TB/HIV co-infection is common, and where antiretroviral treatment has become increasingly accessible. The challenges posed by unmasked TB, such as its high incidence, the lack of reliable diagnostic tools and the uncertainties on its optimal management, may hamper our ability to face the TB/HIV epidemic. Therefore, unmasked TB appears a major threat to global health and poses additional barriers to successful HIV/AIDS care and treatment programmes. This review focuses on the epidemiology, immunopathogenesis and clinical manifestations of unmasked TB, and provides evidence-based recommendations for management and care of the disease. Copyright©ERS 2012.
No
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Scientifica
Antiretroviral therapy; HIV/AIDS; Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome; Unmasked tuberculosis; AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections; Anti-Retroviral Agents; Antitubercular Agents; Developed Countries; Developing Countries; Female; HIV Infections; Humans; Incidence; Male; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Tuberculosis, Pulmonary; Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
English
1064
1075
12
Lapadula, G., Soria, A., Bandera, A., Squillace, N., Sabbatini, F., Franzetti, F., et al. (2012). Unmasking tuberculosis in the era of antiretroviral treatment. EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, 39(5), 1064-1075 [10.1183/09031936.00116611].
Lapadula, G; Soria, A; Bandera, A; Squillace, N; Sabbatini, F; Franzetti, F; Migliori, G; Gori, A
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10281/63411
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