The working curve informs resin properties and print parameters for stereolithography, digital light processing, and other photopolymer additive manufacturing (PAM) technologies. First demonstrated in 1992, the working curve measurement of cure depth vs radiant exposure of light is now a foundational measurement in the field of PAM. Despite its widespread use in industry and academia, there is no formal method or procedure for performing the working curve measurement, raising questions about the utility of reported working curve parameters. Here, an interlaboratory study (ILS) is described in which 24 individual laboratories performed a working curve measurement on an aliquot from a single batch of PAM resin. The ILS reveals that there is enormous scatter in the working curve data and the key fit parameters derived from it. The measured depth of light penetration Dp varied by as much as 7x between participants, while the critical radiant exposure for gelation Ec varied by as much as 70x. This significant scatter is attributed to a lack of common procedure, variation in light engines, epistemic uncertainties from the Jacobs equation, and the use of measurement tools with insufficient precision. The ILS findings highlight an urgent need for procedural standardization and better hardware characterization in this rapidly growing field.

Kolibaba, T., Killgore, J., Caplins, B., Higgins, C., Arp, U., Miller, C., et al. (2024). Results of an interlaboratory study on the working curve in vat photopolymerization. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 84(25 March 2024) [10.1016/j.addma.2024.104082].

Results of an interlaboratory study on the working curve in vat photopolymerization

Antonini C.;Chaudhary R.;
2024

Abstract

The working curve informs resin properties and print parameters for stereolithography, digital light processing, and other photopolymer additive manufacturing (PAM) technologies. First demonstrated in 1992, the working curve measurement of cure depth vs radiant exposure of light is now a foundational measurement in the field of PAM. Despite its widespread use in industry and academia, there is no formal method or procedure for performing the working curve measurement, raising questions about the utility of reported working curve parameters. Here, an interlaboratory study (ILS) is described in which 24 individual laboratories performed a working curve measurement on an aliquot from a single batch of PAM resin. The ILS reveals that there is enormous scatter in the working curve data and the key fit parameters derived from it. The measured depth of light penetration Dp varied by as much as 7x between participants, while the critical radiant exposure for gelation Ec varied by as much as 70x. This significant scatter is attributed to a lack of common procedure, variation in light engines, epistemic uncertainties from the Jacobs equation, and the use of measurement tools with insufficient precision. The ILS findings highlight an urgent need for procedural standardization and better hardware characterization in this rapidly growing field.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Digital light processing; Jacobs equation; Stereolithography; Vat photopolymerization; Working curve;
English
14-mar-2024
2024
84
25 March 2024
104082
none
Kolibaba, T., Killgore, J., Caplins, B., Higgins, C., Arp, U., Miller, C., et al. (2024). Results of an interlaboratory study on the working curve in vat photopolymerization. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, 84(25 March 2024) [10.1016/j.addma.2024.104082].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/484902
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