This article reviews the research recently undertaken to characterise and identify early synthetic dyes (ESDs) and synthetic organic pigments (SOPs) as well as study their degradation pathways with a focus on cultural heritage applications. Since the invention of the first fully synthetic dye in 1856, these materials have been used in a variety of historic objects and artworks, such as textiles, furniture, prints, paintings, drawings, etc. The synthesis of new dyes and their implementation into pigment formulations were rapid phenomena, so that by the beginning of the 20th century, thousands of new molecules were patented and commercialised. This review will focus on these early formulations synthesised up to approximately 1914 and the outbreak of World War I. ESDs and SOPs represent a challenge from an analytical point of view. Molecular databases are fundamental for the unequivocal identification of these compounds, but reference materials are not always readily available. A combination of analytical techniques is often needed for characterisation, especially in the case of SOPs, which have both organic and inorganic components. Furthermore, the degradation of these molecules can jeopardise their detection in historic objects that have been exposed to light, humidity and temperature fluctuations. Nevertheless, ESDs and SOPs are important research tools. As the dates of their first synthesis are often known with precision, based on patent information, their detection can be used to refine the production date of objects. Additionally, their trade from Europe to the world and their adoption in artistic practices around the globe is an active area of research.

Tamburini, D., Sabatini, F., Berbers, S., van Bommel, M., Degano, I. (2024). An Introduction and Recent Advances in the Analytical Study of Early Synthetic Dyes and Organic Pigments in Cultural Heritage. HERITAGE, 7(4), 1969-2010 [10.3390/heritage7040094].

An Introduction and Recent Advances in the Analytical Study of Early Synthetic Dyes and Organic Pigments in Cultural Heritage

Sabatini, F
Secondo
;
2024

Abstract

This article reviews the research recently undertaken to characterise and identify early synthetic dyes (ESDs) and synthetic organic pigments (SOPs) as well as study their degradation pathways with a focus on cultural heritage applications. Since the invention of the first fully synthetic dye in 1856, these materials have been used in a variety of historic objects and artworks, such as textiles, furniture, prints, paintings, drawings, etc. The synthesis of new dyes and their implementation into pigment formulations were rapid phenomena, so that by the beginning of the 20th century, thousands of new molecules were patented and commercialised. This review will focus on these early formulations synthesised up to approximately 1914 and the outbreak of World War I. ESDs and SOPs represent a challenge from an analytical point of view. Molecular databases are fundamental for the unequivocal identification of these compounds, but reference materials are not always readily available. A combination of analytical techniques is often needed for characterisation, especially in the case of SOPs, which have both organic and inorganic components. Furthermore, the degradation of these molecules can jeopardise their detection in historic objects that have been exposed to light, humidity and temperature fluctuations. Nevertheless, ESDs and SOPs are important research tools. As the dates of their first synthesis are often known with precision, based on patent information, their detection can be used to refine the production date of objects. Additionally, their trade from Europe to the world and their adoption in artistic practices around the globe is an active area of research.
Articolo in rivista - Review Essay
colourants; degradation; dyes; historic materials; identification; mass spectrometry; paintings; spectroscopy; synthetic organic pigments; textiles;
English
28-mar-2024
2024
7
4
1969
2010
none
Tamburini, D., Sabatini, F., Berbers, S., van Bommel, M., Degano, I. (2024). An Introduction and Recent Advances in the Analytical Study of Early Synthetic Dyes and Organic Pigments in Cultural Heritage. HERITAGE, 7(4), 1969-2010 [10.3390/heritage7040094].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/480739
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