Elemental geochemistry, Nd isotopes, clay minerals, and U-Pb zircon ages integrated by petrographic and heavy-mineral data offer a multiproxy panorama of mud and sand composition across the Zambezi sediment-routing system. Detrital zircon geochronology highlights the four major episodes of crustal growth in southern Africa: Irumide ages predominate over Pan-African, Eburnean, and Neoarchean ages. Smectite, dominant in mud generated from Karoo basalts or in the equatorial/winter-dry climate of the Mozambican lowlands, prevails over illite and kaolinite. Elemental geochemistry reflects quartz addition by recycling (Uppermost Zambezi), supply from Karoo basalts (Upper Zambezi), and first-cycle provenance from Precambrian basements (Lower Zambezi). Mildly negative for sediments derived from mafic granulites, gabbros, and basalts, εNd values are most negative for sand derived from cratonic gneisses. Intrasample variability among cohesive mud, very coarse silt, and sand is principally caused by the concentration of Nd-rich monazite in the fine tail of the size distribution. The settling-equivalence effect also explains deviations from the theoretical relationship between εNd and TNd,DM model ages, suggesting that monazite carries a more negative εNd signal than less dense and less durable heavy minerals. Elemental geochemistry and Nd isotopes reveal that the Mazowe-Luenha river system contributes most of the sediment reaching the Zambezi delta today, with minor supply from the Shire River. Sediment yields and erosion rates are much lower on the low-relief Kalahari Plateau than in rugged Precambrian terranes. On the plateau, mineralogical and geochemical indices testify to extensive breakdown of feldspars and garnet unjustified by the present dry climate. Detrital kaolinite is recycled by incision of Cretaceous–Cenozoic paleosols even in the wetter lower catchment, where inefficient hydrolysis is testified to by abundant fresh feldspars and undepleted Ca and Na. Mud geochemistry and surficial corrosion of ferromagnesian minerals indicate that, at present, weathering increases only slightly downstream the Zambezi River.

Garzanti, E., Bayon, G., Dinis, P., Vermeesch, P., Pastore, G., Resentini, A., et al. (2022). The Segmented Zambezi Sedimentary System from Source to Sink: 2. Geochemistry, Clay Minerals, and Detrital Geochronology. THE JOURNAL OF GEOLOGY, 130(3), 171-208 [10.1086/719166].

The Segmented Zambezi Sedimentary System from Source to Sink: 2. Geochemistry, Clay Minerals, and Detrital Geochronology

Garzanti, E
;
Pastore, G;Resentini, A;Barbarano, M;
2022

Abstract

Elemental geochemistry, Nd isotopes, clay minerals, and U-Pb zircon ages integrated by petrographic and heavy-mineral data offer a multiproxy panorama of mud and sand composition across the Zambezi sediment-routing system. Detrital zircon geochronology highlights the four major episodes of crustal growth in southern Africa: Irumide ages predominate over Pan-African, Eburnean, and Neoarchean ages. Smectite, dominant in mud generated from Karoo basalts or in the equatorial/winter-dry climate of the Mozambican lowlands, prevails over illite and kaolinite. Elemental geochemistry reflects quartz addition by recycling (Uppermost Zambezi), supply from Karoo basalts (Upper Zambezi), and first-cycle provenance from Precambrian basements (Lower Zambezi). Mildly negative for sediments derived from mafic granulites, gabbros, and basalts, εNd values are most negative for sand derived from cratonic gneisses. Intrasample variability among cohesive mud, very coarse silt, and sand is principally caused by the concentration of Nd-rich monazite in the fine tail of the size distribution. The settling-equivalence effect also explains deviations from the theoretical relationship between εNd and TNd,DM model ages, suggesting that monazite carries a more negative εNd signal than less dense and less durable heavy minerals. Elemental geochemistry and Nd isotopes reveal that the Mazowe-Luenha river system contributes most of the sediment reaching the Zambezi delta today, with minor supply from the Shire River. Sediment yields and erosion rates are much lower on the low-relief Kalahari Plateau than in rugged Precambrian terranes. On the plateau, mineralogical and geochemical indices testify to extensive breakdown of feldspars and garnet unjustified by the present dry climate. Detrital kaolinite is recycled by incision of Cretaceous–Cenozoic paleosols even in the wetter lower catchment, where inefficient hydrolysis is testified to by abundant fresh feldspars and undepleted Ca and Na. Mud geochemistry and surficial corrosion of ferromagnesian minerals indicate that, at present, weathering increases only slightly downstream the Zambezi River.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Namibia; Zambezi
English
5-mag-2022
2022
130
3
171
208
open
Garzanti, E., Bayon, G., Dinis, P., Vermeesch, P., Pastore, G., Resentini, A., et al. (2022). The Segmented Zambezi Sedimentary System from Source to Sink: 2. Geochemistry, Clay Minerals, and Detrital Geochronology. THE JOURNAL OF GEOLOGY, 130(3), 171-208 [10.1086/719166].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/462021
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