Hypocretin/Orexin (HCRT/OX) and dopamine (DA) are both key effectors of salience processing, reward and stress-related behaviors and motivational states, yet their respective roles and interactions are poorly delineated. We inactivated HCRT-to-DA connectivity by genetic disruption of Hypocretin receptor-1 (Hcrtr1), Hypocretin receptor-2 (Hcrtr2), or both receptors (Hcrtr1&2) in DA neurons and analyzed the consequences on vigilance states, brain oscillations and cognitive performance in freely behaving mice. Unexpectedly, loss of Hcrtr2, but not Hcrtr1 or Hcrtr1&2, induced a dramatic increase in theta (7–11 Hz) electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in both wakefulness and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS). DAHcrtr2 -deficient mice spent more time in an active (or theta activity-enriched) substate of wakefulness, and exhibited prolonged REMS. Additionally, both wake and REMS displayed enhanced theta-gamma phase-amplitude coupling. The baseline waking EEG of DAHcrtr2 -deficient mice exhibited diminished infra-theta, but increased theta power, two hallmarks of EEG hyperarousal, that were however uncoupled from locomotor activity. Upon exposure to novel, either rewarding or stress-inducing environments, DAHcrtr2 -deficient mice featured more pronounced waking theta and fast-gamma (52–80 Hz) EEG activity surges compared to littermate controls, further suggesting increased alertness. Cognitive performance was evaluated in an operant conditioning paradigm, which revealed that DAHcrtr2-ablated mice manifest faster task acquisition and higher choice accuracy under increasingly demanding task contingencies. However, the mice concurrently displayed maladaptive patterns of reward-seeking, with behavioral indices of enhanced impulsivity and compulsivity. None of the EEG changes observed in DAHcrtr2 -deficient mice were seen in DAHcrtr1 -ablated mice, which tended to show opposite EEG phenotypes. Our findings establish a clear genetically-defined link between monosynaptic HCRT-to-DA neurotransmission and theta oscillations, with a differential and novel role of HCRTR2 in theta-gamma cross-frequency coupling, attentional processes, and executive functions, relevant to disorders including narcolepsy, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and Parkinson’s disease.

Bandarabadi, M., Li, S., Aeschlimann, L., Colombo, G., Tzanoulinou, S., Tafti, M., et al. (2023). Inactivation of hypocretin receptor-2 signaling in dopaminergic neurons induces hyperarousal and enhanced cognition but impaired inhibitory control. MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY, 1-15 [10.1038/s41380-023-02329-z].

Inactivation of hypocretin receptor-2 signaling in dopaminergic neurons induces hyperarousal and enhanced cognition but impaired inhibitory control

Colombo G.;Becchetti A.;
2023

Abstract

Hypocretin/Orexin (HCRT/OX) and dopamine (DA) are both key effectors of salience processing, reward and stress-related behaviors and motivational states, yet their respective roles and interactions are poorly delineated. We inactivated HCRT-to-DA connectivity by genetic disruption of Hypocretin receptor-1 (Hcrtr1), Hypocretin receptor-2 (Hcrtr2), or both receptors (Hcrtr1&2) in DA neurons and analyzed the consequences on vigilance states, brain oscillations and cognitive performance in freely behaving mice. Unexpectedly, loss of Hcrtr2, but not Hcrtr1 or Hcrtr1&2, induced a dramatic increase in theta (7–11 Hz) electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in both wakefulness and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS). DAHcrtr2 -deficient mice spent more time in an active (or theta activity-enriched) substate of wakefulness, and exhibited prolonged REMS. Additionally, both wake and REMS displayed enhanced theta-gamma phase-amplitude coupling. The baseline waking EEG of DAHcrtr2 -deficient mice exhibited diminished infra-theta, but increased theta power, two hallmarks of EEG hyperarousal, that were however uncoupled from locomotor activity. Upon exposure to novel, either rewarding or stress-inducing environments, DAHcrtr2 -deficient mice featured more pronounced waking theta and fast-gamma (52–80 Hz) EEG activity surges compared to littermate controls, further suggesting increased alertness. Cognitive performance was evaluated in an operant conditioning paradigm, which revealed that DAHcrtr2-ablated mice manifest faster task acquisition and higher choice accuracy under increasingly demanding task contingencies. However, the mice concurrently displayed maladaptive patterns of reward-seeking, with behavioral indices of enhanced impulsivity and compulsivity. None of the EEG changes observed in DAHcrtr2 -deficient mice were seen in DAHcrtr1 -ablated mice, which tended to show opposite EEG phenotypes. Our findings establish a clear genetically-defined link between monosynaptic HCRT-to-DA neurotransmission and theta oscillations, with a differential and novel role of HCRTR2 in theta-gamma cross-frequency coupling, attentional processes, and executive functions, relevant to disorders including narcolepsy, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and Parkinson’s disease.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Hypocretin; orexin; dopamine; HcrtR1; HcrtR2
English
21-dic-2023
2023
1
15
none
Bandarabadi, M., Li, S., Aeschlimann, L., Colombo, G., Tzanoulinou, S., Tafti, M., et al. (2023). Inactivation of hypocretin receptor-2 signaling in dopaminergic neurons induces hyperarousal and enhanced cognition but impaired inhibitory control. MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY, 1-15 [10.1038/s41380-023-02329-z].
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/454578
Citazioni
  • Scopus 2
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
Social impact