People are able to perceive emotions in the eyes of others and can therefore see emotions when individuals wear face masks. Research has been hampered by the lack of a good test to measure basic emotions in the eyes. In two studies respectively with 358 and 200 participants, we developed a test to see anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise in images of eyes. Each emotion is measured with 8 stimuli (4 male actors and 4 female actors), matched in terms of difficulty and item discrimination. Participants reliably differed in their performance on the Seeing Emotions in the Eyes test (SEE-48). The test correlated well not only with Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) but also with the Situational Test of Emotion Understanding (STEU), indicating that the SEE-48 not only measures low-level perceptual skills but also broader skills of emotion perception and emotional intelligence. The test is freely available for research and clinical purposes.

Franca, M., Bolognini, N., Brysbaert, M. (2023). Seeing emotions in the eyes: a validated test to study individual differences in the perception of basic emotions. COGNITIVE RESEARCH, 8(1) [10.1186/s41235-023-00521-x].

Seeing emotions in the eyes: a validated test to study individual differences in the perception of basic emotions

Franca M.
Primo
;
Bolognini N.
Secondo
;
2023

Abstract

People are able to perceive emotions in the eyes of others and can therefore see emotions when individuals wear face masks. Research has been hampered by the lack of a good test to measure basic emotions in the eyes. In two studies respectively with 358 and 200 participants, we developed a test to see anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise in images of eyes. Each emotion is measured with 8 stimuli (4 male actors and 4 female actors), matched in terms of difficulty and item discrimination. Participants reliably differed in their performance on the Seeing Emotions in the Eyes test (SEE-48). The test correlated well not only with Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) but also with the Situational Test of Emotion Understanding (STEU), indicating that the SEE-48 not only measures low-level perceptual skills but also broader skills of emotion perception and emotional intelligence. The test is freely available for research and clinical purposes.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Emotion perception; Emotional intelligence; Face mask; Social cognition;
English
3-nov-2023
2023
8
1
67
none
Franca, M., Bolognini, N., Brysbaert, M. (2023). Seeing emotions in the eyes: a validated test to study individual differences in the perception of basic emotions. COGNITIVE RESEARCH, 8(1) [10.1186/s41235-023-00521-x].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/450059
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