Objective:The aim of this study was to assess the reduction in all-cause death and cardiovascular outcomes associated with the administration of the thiazide-like diuretic indapamide monotherapy or in combination with perindopril as a blood pressure lowering drug in randomized controlled trials (RCTs).Method:Aggregate data from four published RCTs conducted versus matching placebo were pooled: PATS, a 2-year study (indapamide), and PROGRESS, a 4-year study (indapamide and perindopril), both in patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack; ADVANCE, a 4-year study in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factor (single-pill combination perindopril/indapamide) and HYVET, a 2-year study in very elderly hypertensive individuals (indapamide and an option of perindopril). The pooled effect (fixed and random) estimate (hazard ratio) was reported with corresponding 95% confidence intervals and P values. Treatment discontinuations were also analysed to assess the net benefit of the treatment.Results:The population involved 24 194 patients (active: 12 113, placebo: 12 081). The fixed-effects meta-analysis of the three mortality endpoints found low statistical heterogeneity (I2= 0). Statistically significant risk reductions in the indapamide with or without perindopril-treated patients as compared to placebo were observed for all-cause death (-15%), cardiovascular death (-21%), fatal stroke (-36%) and all strokes (-27%). Other cardiovascular outcomes were improved (risk reduction, 22 to 36%). As expected, discontinuation rates for safety (two studies) were higher in the active group (6.4 vs. 3.9%), while they were similar when discontinuation for any reason is concerned (18.4 vs. 18.0%).Conclusion:Across medium to high cardiovascular risk population, long-term indapamide, mostly combined with perindopril-based treatment, provided evidence of benefit on mortality and morbidity.
Chalmers, J., Mourad, J., Brzozowska-Villatte, R., De Champvallins, M., Mancia, G. (2023). Benefit of treatment based on indapamide mostly combined with perindopril on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes: a pooled analysis of four trials. JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION, 41(3), 508-515 [10.1097/HJH.0000000000003368].