Urban areas present multiple challenges to scientists interested in unraveling the source, transport, and fate of airborne particulate matter (PM). Airborne PM consists of a heterogeneous mixture of particles with different sizes, morphologies, and chemical compositions. However, standard air quality stations only detect the mass concentration of PM mixtures with aerodynamic diameters ≤10 μm (PM10) and/or ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5). During honey bee foraging flights, airborne PM up to 10 μm in size attaches to their bodies, making them suitable for collecting spatiotemporal data on airborne PM. The individual particulate chemistry of this PM can be assessed using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy on a sub-micrometer scale, allowing accurate identification and classification of the particles. Herein, we analyzed the PM fractions of 10–2.5 μm, 2.5–1 μm, and below 1 μm in average geometric diameter collected by bees from hives located in the city of Milan, Italy. Bees showed contamination by natural dust, originating from soil erosion and rock outcropping in the foraging area, and particles with recurrent heavy metal content, most likely attributed to vehicular braking systems and possibly tires (non-exhaust PM). Notably, approximately 80% of non-exhaust PM was ≤1 μm in size. This study provides a possible alternative strategy to apportion the finer fraction of PM in urban areas and determine citizens’ exposure. Our findings may also prompt decision-makers to issue policy addressal for non-exhaust pollution, especially for the ongoing restructuring of European regulations on mobility and the shift toward electric vehicles whose contribution to PM pollution is debated.

Pellecchia, M., Papa, G., Barbato, M., Capitani, G., Negri, I. (2023). Origin of non-exhaust PM in cities by individual analysis of particles collected by honey bees (Apis mellifera). ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, 331(P2 (15 August 2023)) [10.1016/j.envpol.2023.121885].

Origin of non-exhaust PM in cities by individual analysis of particles collected by honey bees (Apis mellifera)

Capitani G.;
2023

Abstract

Urban areas present multiple challenges to scientists interested in unraveling the source, transport, and fate of airborne particulate matter (PM). Airborne PM consists of a heterogeneous mixture of particles with different sizes, morphologies, and chemical compositions. However, standard air quality stations only detect the mass concentration of PM mixtures with aerodynamic diameters ≤10 μm (PM10) and/or ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5). During honey bee foraging flights, airborne PM up to 10 μm in size attaches to their bodies, making them suitable for collecting spatiotemporal data on airborne PM. The individual particulate chemistry of this PM can be assessed using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy on a sub-micrometer scale, allowing accurate identification and classification of the particles. Herein, we analyzed the PM fractions of 10–2.5 μm, 2.5–1 μm, and below 1 μm in average geometric diameter collected by bees from hives located in the city of Milan, Italy. Bees showed contamination by natural dust, originating from soil erosion and rock outcropping in the foraging area, and particles with recurrent heavy metal content, most likely attributed to vehicular braking systems and possibly tires (non-exhaust PM). Notably, approximately 80% of non-exhaust PM was ≤1 μm in size. This study provides a possible alternative strategy to apportion the finer fraction of PM in urban areas and determine citizens’ exposure. Our findings may also prompt decision-makers to issue policy addressal for non-exhaust pollution, especially for the ongoing restructuring of European regulations on mobility and the shift toward electric vehicles whose contribution to PM pollution is debated.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Honey bee; Non-exhaust emissions; Particulate matter; Pollutant; SEM-EDX
English
24-mag-2023
2023
331
P2 (15 August 2023)
121885
none
Pellecchia, M., Papa, G., Barbato, M., Capitani, G., Negri, I. (2023). Origin of non-exhaust PM in cities by individual analysis of particles collected by honey bees (Apis mellifera). ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, 331(P2 (15 August 2023)) [10.1016/j.envpol.2023.121885].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/421759
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