Introduction: Growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) exert multiple actions, being able to activate GHS-receptor 1a, control inflammation and metabolism, to enhance GH/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-mediated myogenesis, and to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme. These mechanisms are of interest for potentially targeting multiple steps of pathogenic cascade in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods: Here, we aimed to provide preclinical evidence for potential benefits of GHSs in DMD, via a multidisciplinary in vivo and ex vivo comparison in mdx mice, of two ad hoc synthesized compounds (EP80317 and JMV2894), with a wide but different profile. 4-week-old mdx mice were treated for 8 weeks with EP80317 or JMV2894 (320 µg/kg/d, s.c.). Results: In vivo, both GHSs increased mice forelimb force (recovery score, RS towards WT: 20% for EP80317 and 32% for JMV2894 at week 8). In parallel, GHSs also reduced diaphragm (DIA) and gastrocnemius (GC) ultrasound echodensity, a fibrosis-related parameter (RS: ranging between 26% and 75%). Ex vivo, both drugs ameliorated DIA isometric force and calcium-related indices (e.g., RS: 40% for tetanic force). Histological analysis highlighted a relevant reduction of fibrosis in GC and DIA muscles of treated mice, paralleled by a decrease in gene expression of TGF-β1 and Col1a1. Also, decreased levels of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, CD68), accompanied by an increment in Sirt-1, PGC-1α and MEF2c expression, were observed in response to treatments, suggesting an overall improvement of myofiber metabolism. No detectable transcript levels of GHS receptor-1a, nor an increase of circulating IGF-1 were found, suggesting the presence of a novel receptor-independent mechanism in skeletal muscle. Preliminary docking studies revealed a potential binding capability of JMV2894 on metalloproteases involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and cytokine production, such as ADAMTS-5 and MMP-9, overactivated in DMD. Discussion: Our results support the interest of GHSs as modulators of pathology progression in mdx mice, disclosing a direct anti-fibrotic action that may prove beneficial to contrast pathological remodeling.

Boccanegra, B., Cappellari, O., Mantuano, P., Trisciuzzi, D., Mele, A., Tulimiero, L., et al. (2023). Growth hormone secretagogues modulate inflammation and fibrosis in mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, 14 [10.3389/fimmu.2023.1119888].

Growth hormone secretagogues modulate inflammation and fibrosis in mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Meanti R.;Rizzi L.;Bresciani E.;Torsello A.
Penultimo
;
2023

Abstract

Introduction: Growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) exert multiple actions, being able to activate GHS-receptor 1a, control inflammation and metabolism, to enhance GH/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-mediated myogenesis, and to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme. These mechanisms are of interest for potentially targeting multiple steps of pathogenic cascade in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods: Here, we aimed to provide preclinical evidence for potential benefits of GHSs in DMD, via a multidisciplinary in vivo and ex vivo comparison in mdx mice, of two ad hoc synthesized compounds (EP80317 and JMV2894), with a wide but different profile. 4-week-old mdx mice were treated for 8 weeks with EP80317 or JMV2894 (320 µg/kg/d, s.c.). Results: In vivo, both GHSs increased mice forelimb force (recovery score, RS towards WT: 20% for EP80317 and 32% for JMV2894 at week 8). In parallel, GHSs also reduced diaphragm (DIA) and gastrocnemius (GC) ultrasound echodensity, a fibrosis-related parameter (RS: ranging between 26% and 75%). Ex vivo, both drugs ameliorated DIA isometric force and calcium-related indices (e.g., RS: 40% for tetanic force). Histological analysis highlighted a relevant reduction of fibrosis in GC and DIA muscles of treated mice, paralleled by a decrease in gene expression of TGF-β1 and Col1a1. Also, decreased levels of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, CD68), accompanied by an increment in Sirt-1, PGC-1α and MEF2c expression, were observed in response to treatments, suggesting an overall improvement of myofiber metabolism. No detectable transcript levels of GHS receptor-1a, nor an increase of circulating IGF-1 were found, suggesting the presence of a novel receptor-independent mechanism in skeletal muscle. Preliminary docking studies revealed a potential binding capability of JMV2894 on metalloproteases involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and cytokine production, such as ADAMTS-5 and MMP-9, overactivated in DMD. Discussion: Our results support the interest of GHSs as modulators of pathology progression in mdx mice, disclosing a direct anti-fibrotic action that may prove beneficial to contrast pathological remodeling.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Duchenne muscular dystrophy; fibrosis; growth hormone secretagogues; mdx mouse; skeletal muscle;
English
12-apr-2023
2023
14
1119888
open
Boccanegra, B., Cappellari, O., Mantuano, P., Trisciuzzi, D., Mele, A., Tulimiero, L., et al. (2023). Growth hormone secretagogues modulate inflammation and fibrosis in mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, 14 [10.3389/fimmu.2023.1119888].
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Boccanegra-2023-Front Immunol-VoR.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: Original research article
Tipologia di allegato: Publisher’s Version (Version of Record, VoR)
Licenza: Creative Commons
Dimensione 792.3 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
792.3 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/419668
Citazioni
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
Social impact