Incomplete combustion processes in diesel engines produce particulate matter (PM) that significantly contributes to air pollution. Currently, there remains a knowledge gap in relation to the physical and chemical characteristics and also the biological reactivity of the PM emitted from old- and new-generation diesel vehicles. In this study, the emissions from a Euro 3 diesel vehicle were compared to those from a Euro 6 car during the regeneration of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Different driving cycles were used to collect two types of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). The particle size distribution was monitored using an engine exhaust particle sizer spectrometer and an electrical low-pressure impactor. Although the Euro 6 vehicle emitted particulates only during DPF regeneration that primarily occurs for a few minutes at high speeds, such emissions are characterized by a higher number of ultrafine particles (<0.1 mu m) compared to those from the Euro 3 diesel vehicle. The emitted particles possess different characteristics. For example, Euro 6 DEPs exhibit a lower PAH content than do Euro 3 samples; however, they are enriched in metals that were poorly detected or undetected in Euro 3 emissions. The biological effects of the two DEPs were investigated in human bronchial BEAS-2B cells exposed to 50 mu g/mL of PM (corresponding to 5.2 mu g/cm(2)), and the results revealed that Euro 3 DEPs activated the typical inflammatory and procarcinogenic pathways induced by combustion-derived particles, while Euro 6 DEPs were less effective in regard to activating such biological responses. Although further investigations are required, it is evident that the different in vitro effects elicited by Euro 3 and Euro 6 DEPs can be correlated with the variable chemical compositions (metals and PAHs) of the emitted particles that play a pivotal role in the inflammatory and carcinogenic potential of airborne PM.

Zerboni, A., Rossi, T., Bengalli, R., Catelani, T., Rizzi, C., Priola, M., et al. (2022). Diesel exhaust particulate emissions and in vitro toxicity from Euro 3 and Euro 6 vehicles. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, 297 [10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118767].

Diesel exhaust particulate emissions and in vitro toxicity from Euro 3 and Euro 6 vehicles

Zerboni, Alessandra
;
Bengalli, Rossella;Catelani, Tiziano;Rizzi, Cristiana;Mantecca, Paride
2022

Abstract

Incomplete combustion processes in diesel engines produce particulate matter (PM) that significantly contributes to air pollution. Currently, there remains a knowledge gap in relation to the physical and chemical characteristics and also the biological reactivity of the PM emitted from old- and new-generation diesel vehicles. In this study, the emissions from a Euro 3 diesel vehicle were compared to those from a Euro 6 car during the regeneration of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Different driving cycles were used to collect two types of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). The particle size distribution was monitored using an engine exhaust particle sizer spectrometer and an electrical low-pressure impactor. Although the Euro 6 vehicle emitted particulates only during DPF regeneration that primarily occurs for a few minutes at high speeds, such emissions are characterized by a higher number of ultrafine particles (<0.1 mu m) compared to those from the Euro 3 diesel vehicle. The emitted particles possess different characteristics. For example, Euro 6 DEPs exhibit a lower PAH content than do Euro 3 samples; however, they are enriched in metals that were poorly detected or undetected in Euro 3 emissions. The biological effects of the two DEPs were investigated in human bronchial BEAS-2B cells exposed to 50 mu g/mL of PM (corresponding to 5.2 mu g/cm(2)), and the results revealed that Euro 3 DEPs activated the typical inflammatory and procarcinogenic pathways induced by combustion-derived particles, while Euro 6 DEPs were less effective in regard to activating such biological responses. Although further investigations are required, it is evident that the different in vitro effects elicited by Euro 3 and Euro 6 DEPs can be correlated with the variable chemical compositions (metals and PAHs) of the emitted particles that play a pivotal role in the inflammatory and carcinogenic potential of airborne PM.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Bronchial-cells; Diesel particulate filter; Inhalation toxicology; Pollution;
English
30-dic-2021
2022
297
118767
none
Zerboni, A., Rossi, T., Bengalli, R., Catelani, T., Rizzi, C., Priola, M., et al. (2022). Diesel exhaust particulate emissions and in vitro toxicity from Euro 3 and Euro 6 vehicles. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, 297 [10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118767].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/404828
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