Introduction The Italian antimicrobial prescription rate is one of the highest in Europe, and antibiotic resistance has become a serious problem with high costs and severe consequences, including prolonged illnesses, the increased period of hospitalization and mortality. Inadequate antibiotic prescriptions have been frequently reported, especially for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI); many patients receive antibiotics for viral pneumonia or bronchiolitis or broadspectrum antibiotics for not complicated community-acquired pneumonia. For this reason, healthcare organizations need to implement strategies to raise physicians' awareness about this kind of drug and their overall effect on the population. The implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs and the use of Clinical Pathways (CPs) are excellent solutions because they have proven to be effective tools at diagnostic and therapeutic levels. Aims This study evaluates the impact of CPs implementation in a Pediatric Emergency Department (PED), analyzing antibiotic prescriptions before and after the publication in 2015 and 2019. The CP developed in 2019 represents an update of the previous one with the introduction of serum procalcitonin. The study aims to evaluate the antibiotic prescriptions in patients with communityacquired pneumonia (CAP) before and after both CPs (2015 and 2019). Methods The periods analyzed are seven semesters (one before CP-2015 called PRE period, five post CP-2015 called POST 1-5 and 1 post CP-2019 called POST6). The patients have been split into two groups: (i) children admitted to the Pediatric Acute Care Unit (INPATIENTS), and (ii) patients evaluated in the PED and sent back home (OUTPATIENTS). We have analyzed all descriptive diagnosis of CAP (the assessment of episodes with a descriptive diagnosis were conducted independently by two pediatricians) and CAP with ICD9 classification. All antibiotic prescriptions for pediatric patients with CAP were analyzed. Results A drastic reduction of broad-spectrum antibiotics prescription for inpatients has been noticed; from 100.0% in the PRE-period to 66.7% in POST1, and up to 38.5% in POST6. Simultaneously, an increase in amoxicillin use from 33.3% in the PRE-period to 76.1% in POST1 (p-value 0.078 and 0.018) has been seen. The outpatients' group's broad-spectrum antibiotics prescriptions decreased from 54.6% PRE to 17.4% in POST6. Both for outpatients and inpatients, there was a decrease of macrolides. The inpatient group's antibiotic therapy duration decreased from 13.5 days (PRE-period) to 7.0 days in the POST6. Antibiotic therapy duration in the outpatient group decreased from 9.0 days (PRE) to 7.0 days (POST1), maintaining the same value in subsequent periods. Overlapping results were seen in the ICD9 group for both inpatients and outpatients. Conclusions This study shows that CPs are effective tools for an antibiotic stewardship program. Indeed, broad-spectrum antibiotics usage has dropped and amoxicillin prescriptions have increased after implementing the CAP CP-2015 and the 2019 update.

Rossin, S., Barbieri, E., Cantarutti, A., Martinolli, F., Giaquinto, C., Da Dalt, L., et al. (2021). Multistep antimicrobial stewardship intervention on antibiotic prescriptions and treatment duration in children with pneumonia. PLOS ONE, 16(10) [10.1371/journal.pone.0257993].

Multistep antimicrobial stewardship intervention on antibiotic prescriptions and treatment duration in children with pneumonia

Cantarutti, A;
2021

Abstract

Introduction The Italian antimicrobial prescription rate is one of the highest in Europe, and antibiotic resistance has become a serious problem with high costs and severe consequences, including prolonged illnesses, the increased period of hospitalization and mortality. Inadequate antibiotic prescriptions have been frequently reported, especially for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI); many patients receive antibiotics for viral pneumonia or bronchiolitis or broadspectrum antibiotics for not complicated community-acquired pneumonia. For this reason, healthcare organizations need to implement strategies to raise physicians' awareness about this kind of drug and their overall effect on the population. The implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs and the use of Clinical Pathways (CPs) are excellent solutions because they have proven to be effective tools at diagnostic and therapeutic levels. Aims This study evaluates the impact of CPs implementation in a Pediatric Emergency Department (PED), analyzing antibiotic prescriptions before and after the publication in 2015 and 2019. The CP developed in 2019 represents an update of the previous one with the introduction of serum procalcitonin. The study aims to evaluate the antibiotic prescriptions in patients with communityacquired pneumonia (CAP) before and after both CPs (2015 and 2019). Methods The periods analyzed are seven semesters (one before CP-2015 called PRE period, five post CP-2015 called POST 1-5 and 1 post CP-2019 called POST6). The patients have been split into two groups: (i) children admitted to the Pediatric Acute Care Unit (INPATIENTS), and (ii) patients evaluated in the PED and sent back home (OUTPATIENTS). We have analyzed all descriptive diagnosis of CAP (the assessment of episodes with a descriptive diagnosis were conducted independently by two pediatricians) and CAP with ICD9 classification. All antibiotic prescriptions for pediatric patients with CAP were analyzed. Results A drastic reduction of broad-spectrum antibiotics prescription for inpatients has been noticed; from 100.0% in the PRE-period to 66.7% in POST1, and up to 38.5% in POST6. Simultaneously, an increase in amoxicillin use from 33.3% in the PRE-period to 76.1% in POST1 (p-value 0.078 and 0.018) has been seen. The outpatients' group's broad-spectrum antibiotics prescriptions decreased from 54.6% PRE to 17.4% in POST6. Both for outpatients and inpatients, there was a decrease of macrolides. The inpatient group's antibiotic therapy duration decreased from 13.5 days (PRE-period) to 7.0 days in the POST6. Antibiotic therapy duration in the outpatient group decreased from 9.0 days (PRE) to 7.0 days (POST1), maintaining the same value in subsequent periods. Overlapping results were seen in the ICD9 group for both inpatients and outpatients. Conclusions This study shows that CPs are effective tools for an antibiotic stewardship program. Indeed, broad-spectrum antibiotics usage has dropped and amoxicillin prescriptions have increased after implementing the CAP CP-2015 and the 2019 update.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Adolescent; Ambulatory Care; Amoxicillin; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Antimicrobial Stewardship; Child; Child, Preschool; Community-Acquired Infections; Drug Prescriptions; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Emergency Service, Hospital; Female; Hospitalization; Humans; Infant; Italy; Macrolides; Male; Pneumonia; Treatment Outcome; Critical Pathways; Duration of Therapy
English
Rossin, S., Barbieri, E., Cantarutti, A., Martinolli, F., Giaquinto, C., Da Dalt, L., et al. (2021). Multistep antimicrobial stewardship intervention on antibiotic prescriptions and treatment duration in children with pneumonia. PLOS ONE, 16(10) [10.1371/journal.pone.0257993].
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/397456
Citazioni
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
Social impact