Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) with in vivo lymphodepletion can provide faster neutrophil recovery with limited risk of severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in children with nonmalignant disorders (NMDs). We aimed to provide an historical comparison of these 2 strategies regarding the prevalence of GVHD, viral reactivation, timing of immune reconstitution, and final outcomes. Data on 98 children undergoing PBSCT were collected from 5 European pediatric transplantation centers. Only patients with NMDs receiving treosulfan or myeloablative busulfan conditioning and 9-10/10 HLA-matched transplant were included. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to in vivo lymphodepletion with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or with alemtuzumab. We compared rates of acute and chronic GVHD; Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and adenovirus reactivation; chimerism; lymphocyte recovery; overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) between the 2 groups. The rate of severe acute GVHD (grade III-IV) was significantly higher in patients receiving ATG (26% vs 10% in alemtuzumab recipients; P < .05), whereas viral reactivations occurred with a similar rate in the 2 groups (alemtuzumab, 56%; ATG, 57%). Alemtuzumab was the major risk factor for delayed T cell immune reconstitution in the first 3 months after transplantation (odds ratio [OR], 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8 to 19; P < .005). Extended chronic GVHD, ADV reactivation, slower CD3+ cell recovery, and HLA-mismatch reduced the probability of survival. Infections were the main cause of mortality in our cohort, and delayed T cell recovery was significantly associated with mortality in multivariate analysis (OR, 12; 95% CI, 1.2 to 114; P < .05). Ultimately, no differences in OS and EFS survival were seen between the ATG and alemtuzumab groups. ATG and alemtuzumab showed similar impacts on outcomes of children undergoing PBSCT for NMDs. The 2 strategies of in vivo lymphodepletion showed specific drawbacks that were counterbalanced by benefits that ultimately led to a comparable survival rate. A patient-centered lymphodepletion strategy can be advised in children undergoing PBSCT for NMDs, by favoring T cell recovery in the presence of invasive infection or GVHD prevention in high-risk mismatched donor transplantation.

Ottaviano, G., Achini-Gutzwiller, F., Kalwak, K., Lanino, E., Faraci, M., Rao, K., et al. (2021). Impact of in Vivo Lymphodepletion on Outcome in Children with Nonmalignant Disorders Receiving Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. TRANSPLANTATION AND CELLULAR THERAPY, 27(12), 1020-1025 [10.1016/j.jtct.2021.08.015].

Impact of in Vivo Lymphodepletion on Outcome in Children with Nonmalignant Disorders Receiving Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation

Ottaviano G.
;
Balduzzi A.;
2021

Abstract

Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) with in vivo lymphodepletion can provide faster neutrophil recovery with limited risk of severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in children with nonmalignant disorders (NMDs). We aimed to provide an historical comparison of these 2 strategies regarding the prevalence of GVHD, viral reactivation, timing of immune reconstitution, and final outcomes. Data on 98 children undergoing PBSCT were collected from 5 European pediatric transplantation centers. Only patients with NMDs receiving treosulfan or myeloablative busulfan conditioning and 9-10/10 HLA-matched transplant were included. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to in vivo lymphodepletion with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or with alemtuzumab. We compared rates of acute and chronic GVHD; Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and adenovirus reactivation; chimerism; lymphocyte recovery; overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) between the 2 groups. The rate of severe acute GVHD (grade III-IV) was significantly higher in patients receiving ATG (26% vs 10% in alemtuzumab recipients; P < .05), whereas viral reactivations occurred with a similar rate in the 2 groups (alemtuzumab, 56%; ATG, 57%). Alemtuzumab was the major risk factor for delayed T cell immune reconstitution in the first 3 months after transplantation (odds ratio [OR], 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8 to 19; P < .005). Extended chronic GVHD, ADV reactivation, slower CD3+ cell recovery, and HLA-mismatch reduced the probability of survival. Infections were the main cause of mortality in our cohort, and delayed T cell recovery was significantly associated with mortality in multivariate analysis (OR, 12; 95% CI, 1.2 to 114; P < .05). Ultimately, no differences in OS and EFS survival were seen between the ATG and alemtuzumab groups. ATG and alemtuzumab showed similar impacts on outcomes of children undergoing PBSCT for NMDs. The 2 strategies of in vivo lymphodepletion showed specific drawbacks that were counterbalanced by benefits that ultimately led to a comparable survival rate. A patient-centered lymphodepletion strategy can be advised in children undergoing PBSCT for NMDs, by favoring T cell recovery in the presence of invasive infection or GVHD prevention in high-risk mismatched donor transplantation.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Alemtuzumab; ATG; Graft-versus-host disease; Immune reconstitution; Lymphodepletion; Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation;
English
1020
1025
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Ottaviano, G., Achini-Gutzwiller, F., Kalwak, K., Lanino, E., Faraci, M., Rao, K., et al. (2021). Impact of in Vivo Lymphodepletion on Outcome in Children with Nonmalignant Disorders Receiving Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. TRANSPLANTATION AND CELLULAR THERAPY, 27(12), 1020-1025 [10.1016/j.jtct.2021.08.015].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/395692
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