A wide spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases has been associated with pathogenic variants in the PNPLA6 (patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 6) gene, including spastic paraplegia type 39, Gordon—Holmes, Boucher—Neuhauser, Oliver—Mc Farlane, and Laurence—Moon syndromes. These syndromes present variable and overlapping clinical symptoms, encompassing cerebellar ataxia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, chorioretinal dystrophy, spastic paraplegia, muscle wasting, peripheral neuropathy, and cognitive impairment. In the present study, we performed a wide genetic screening in 292 patients presenting with ataxia or spastic paraplegia using a probe-based customized gene panel, covering >200 genes associated with spinocerebellar diseases. We identified six novel and four recurrent PNPLA6 gene variants in eight patients (2.7%). Six patients presented an infantile or juvenile onset (age <18), and two patients had an adult onset. Cerebellar ataxia was observed in seven patients and spastic paraplegia in one patient. Progression of cerebellar symptoms was slow in all patients, who retained ambulation even after a mean disease duration of 15 years. Brain MRI showed cerebellar atrophy in 6/8 patients, more pronounced in superior and dorsal vermis lobules (I to VII). Additional clinical features included hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (5/8), growth hormone deficiency (2/8), peripheral axonal neuropathy (4/8), cognitive impairment (3/8), chorioretinal dystrophy (2/8), and bilateral vestibular areflexia with a reduced visual vestibule-ocular reflex (1/8). In accordance with previous studies, chorioretinal dystrophy was the most frequent presenting symptom in early onset patients, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in juvenile onset cases, and cerebellar ataxia in adult patients. One patient had an initial clinical presentation compatible with Cerebellar Ataxia with Neuropathy and Vestibular Areflexia Syndrome (CANVAS), but no pathological expansions in the RFC1 gene. In conclusion, patients with PNPLA6 variants present a variable age of onset spanning from infancy to adulthood, and each clinical symptom has an age-dependent manifestation thus requiring a multi-systemic diagnostic approach. The description of patients presenting very late-onset cerebellar ataxia suggests that PNPLA6 genetic screening should also be considered in the diagnostic workout of adult cerebellar ataxia.

Nanetti, L., Di Bella, D., Magri, S., Fichera, M., Sarto, E., Castaldo, A., et al. (2022). Multifaceted and Age-Dependent Phenotypes Associated With Biallelic PNPLA6 Gene Variants: Eight Novel Cases and Review of the Literature. FRONTIERS IN NEUROLOGY, 12(6 January 2022) [10.3389/fneur.2021.793547].

Multifaceted and Age-Dependent Phenotypes Associated With Biallelic PNPLA6 Gene Variants: Eight Novel Cases and Review of the Literature

Fichera, Mario;Fenu, Silvia;
2022

Abstract

A wide spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases has been associated with pathogenic variants in the PNPLA6 (patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 6) gene, including spastic paraplegia type 39, Gordon—Holmes, Boucher—Neuhauser, Oliver—Mc Farlane, and Laurence—Moon syndromes. These syndromes present variable and overlapping clinical symptoms, encompassing cerebellar ataxia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, chorioretinal dystrophy, spastic paraplegia, muscle wasting, peripheral neuropathy, and cognitive impairment. In the present study, we performed a wide genetic screening in 292 patients presenting with ataxia or spastic paraplegia using a probe-based customized gene panel, covering >200 genes associated with spinocerebellar diseases. We identified six novel and four recurrent PNPLA6 gene variants in eight patients (2.7%). Six patients presented an infantile or juvenile onset (age <18), and two patients had an adult onset. Cerebellar ataxia was observed in seven patients and spastic paraplegia in one patient. Progression of cerebellar symptoms was slow in all patients, who retained ambulation even after a mean disease duration of 15 years. Brain MRI showed cerebellar atrophy in 6/8 patients, more pronounced in superior and dorsal vermis lobules (I to VII). Additional clinical features included hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (5/8), growth hormone deficiency (2/8), peripheral axonal neuropathy (4/8), cognitive impairment (3/8), chorioretinal dystrophy (2/8), and bilateral vestibular areflexia with a reduced visual vestibule-ocular reflex (1/8). In accordance with previous studies, chorioretinal dystrophy was the most frequent presenting symptom in early onset patients, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in juvenile onset cases, and cerebellar ataxia in adult patients. One patient had an initial clinical presentation compatible with Cerebellar Ataxia with Neuropathy and Vestibular Areflexia Syndrome (CANVAS), but no pathological expansions in the RFC1 gene. In conclusion, patients with PNPLA6 variants present a variable age of onset spanning from infancy to adulthood, and each clinical symptom has an age-dependent manifestation thus requiring a multi-systemic diagnostic approach. The description of patients presenting very late-onset cerebellar ataxia suggests that PNPLA6 genetic screening should also be considered in the diagnostic workout of adult cerebellar ataxia.
No
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Scientifica
Boucher Neuhauser syndrome; cerebellar ataxia; chorioretinal dystrophy; Gordon Holmes syndrome; hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; Oliver Mc Farlane syndrome; spastic paraplegia;
English
Nanetti, L., Di Bella, D., Magri, S., Fichera, M., Sarto, E., Castaldo, A., et al. (2022). Multifaceted and Age-Dependent Phenotypes Associated With Biallelic PNPLA6 Gene Variants: Eight Novel Cases and Review of the Literature. FRONTIERS IN NEUROLOGY, 12(6 January 2022) [10.3389/fneur.2021.793547].
Nanetti, L; Di Bella, D; Magri, S; Fichera, M; Sarto, E; Castaldo, A; Mongelli, A; Baratta, S; Fenu, S; Moscatelli, M; Bonati, M; Martinuzzi, A; Mariotti, C; Taroni, F
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10281/390966
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