Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have an array of immunomodulatory treatment options compared with IPF, due to their inflammatory component. However, there is a relative paucity of guidance on the management of this heterogeneous group of diseases. In ILDs other than IPF, immunosuppression is the cornerstone of therapy, with varying levels of evidence for different immunomodulatory agents and for each specific ILD. Classification of ILDs is important for guiding treatment decisions. Immunomodulatory agents mainly include corticosteroids, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), azathioprine, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide and rituximab. In this review, the available evidence for single agents in the most common ILDs is first discussed. We then reviewed practical therapeutic approaches in connective tissue disease-related ILD and interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features, scleroderma-related ILD, vasculitis and dermatomyositis with hypoxemic respiratory failure, idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis sarcoidosis, fibrosing organizing pneumonia and eosinophilic pneumonia. The treatment of acute exacerbations of ILD is also discussed. Therapy augmentation in ILD is dictated by the recognition of progression of disease. Criteria for the evaluation of progression of disease are then discussed. Finally, specific protocol and measures to increase patients' safety are reviewed as well, including general monitoring and serologic surveillance, Pneumocystis jirovecii prophylaxis, patients' education, genetic testing for azathioprine, MMF serum levels and cyclophosphamide administration protocols. Immunomodulatory therapies are largely successful in the management of ILDs and can be safely managed with the application of specific protocols, precautions and monitoring.

van den Bosch, L., Luppi, F., Ferrara, G., Mura, M. (2022). Immunomodulatory treatment of interstitial lung disease. THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES IN RESPIRATORY DISEASE, 16 [10.1177/17534666221117002].

Immunomodulatory treatment of interstitial lung disease

Luppi, Fabrizio;
2022

Abstract

Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have an array of immunomodulatory treatment options compared with IPF, due to their inflammatory component. However, there is a relative paucity of guidance on the management of this heterogeneous group of diseases. In ILDs other than IPF, immunosuppression is the cornerstone of therapy, with varying levels of evidence for different immunomodulatory agents and for each specific ILD. Classification of ILDs is important for guiding treatment decisions. Immunomodulatory agents mainly include corticosteroids, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), azathioprine, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide and rituximab. In this review, the available evidence for single agents in the most common ILDs is first discussed. We then reviewed practical therapeutic approaches in connective tissue disease-related ILD and interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features, scleroderma-related ILD, vasculitis and dermatomyositis with hypoxemic respiratory failure, idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis sarcoidosis, fibrosing organizing pneumonia and eosinophilic pneumonia. The treatment of acute exacerbations of ILD is also discussed. Therapy augmentation in ILD is dictated by the recognition of progression of disease. Criteria for the evaluation of progression of disease are then discussed. Finally, specific protocol and measures to increase patients' safety are reviewed as well, including general monitoring and serologic surveillance, Pneumocystis jirovecii prophylaxis, patients' education, genetic testing for azathioprine, MMF serum levels and cyclophosphamide administration protocols. Immunomodulatory therapies are largely successful in the management of ILDs and can be safely managed with the application of specific protocols, precautions and monitoring.
Articolo in rivista - Review Essay
immunomodulatory; immunosuppressive; interstitial lung disease; therapy; treatment;
English
8-ago-2022
2022
16
open
van den Bosch, L., Luppi, F., Ferrara, G., Mura, M. (2022). Immunomodulatory treatment of interstitial lung disease. THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES IN RESPIRATORY DISEASE, 16 [10.1177/17534666221117002].
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
10281-390489_VoR.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia di allegato: Publisher’s Version (Version of Record, VoR)
Licenza: Creative Commons
Dimensione 155.95 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
155.95 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/390489
Citazioni
  • Scopus 15
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 13
Social impact