Background and aim. Thromboembolic events due to left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombosis are the main complication of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Although anticoagulants are effective in patients with NVAF, a minimal residual thromboembolic risk persists. Little is known about the prevalence of LAA thrombus and the rate of resolution after the recommended period of anticoagulation therapy, including vitamin K antagonists (VKA), heparin, and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). Methods and results. We aimed to study the prevalence of LAA thrombus in an unselected cohort of patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), and the determinants of LAA thrombus resolution. We retrospectively analyzed 8888 consecutive TEEs performed over five years in two high-volume centers and included all patients with LAA thrombus. A total of 265 patients (3%) had an LAA thrombus. Among these, 97% presented with AF. Fifty-eight percent of patients were on anticoagulants at least three weeks before the diagnosis. After the LAA thrombus diagnosis, VKAs were prescribed in 52%, heparin in 18.5%, and NOAC in 27% of patients. Among the 183 patients with repeat TEE, performed at (25–75th) 39 days (21–84), 67% showed resolution of the LAA thrombus. Although the rate of thrombus resolution was higher in patients treated with NOACs (NOACs 71%, VKA 66%, Heparin 60%) the difference between anticoagulants was statistically non-significant (VKA, OR 0.9, p = 0.83; NOAC, OR 1.23, p = 0.42; heparin, OR 0.69, p = 0.35). Thus, NOACs were demonstrated to be at least as effective as other anticoagulants in the rate of LAA thrombus resolution. Upon multivariate-adjusted analysis, higher LAA emptying velocities were the only predictor of thrombus resolution. In conclusion, the majority of patients were already on anticoagulants. NOACs could be at least as effective as other anticoagulants, yielding an LAA thrombus resolution in two-thirds of patients. This may have clinical relevance, especially in patients undergoing cardioversion or catheter ablation.

Faggiano, P., Dinatolo, E., Moreo, A., De Chiara, B., Sbolli, M., Musca, F., et al. (2022). Prevalence and Rate of Resolution of Left Atrial Thrombus in Patients with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Two-Center Retrospective Real-World Study. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE, 11(6) [10.3390/jcm11061520].

Prevalence and Rate of Resolution of Left Atrial Thrombus in Patients with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Two-Center Retrospective Real-World Study

Moreo A.;De Chiara B.;Giannattasio C.;Tomasi C.;
2022

Abstract

Background and aim. Thromboembolic events due to left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombosis are the main complication of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Although anticoagulants are effective in patients with NVAF, a minimal residual thromboembolic risk persists. Little is known about the prevalence of LAA thrombus and the rate of resolution after the recommended period of anticoagulation therapy, including vitamin K antagonists (VKA), heparin, and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). Methods and results. We aimed to study the prevalence of LAA thrombus in an unselected cohort of patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), and the determinants of LAA thrombus resolution. We retrospectively analyzed 8888 consecutive TEEs performed over five years in two high-volume centers and included all patients with LAA thrombus. A total of 265 patients (3%) had an LAA thrombus. Among these, 97% presented with AF. Fifty-eight percent of patients were on anticoagulants at least three weeks before the diagnosis. After the LAA thrombus diagnosis, VKAs were prescribed in 52%, heparin in 18.5%, and NOAC in 27% of patients. Among the 183 patients with repeat TEE, performed at (25–75th) 39 days (21–84), 67% showed resolution of the LAA thrombus. Although the rate of thrombus resolution was higher in patients treated with NOACs (NOACs 71%, VKA 66%, Heparin 60%) the difference between anticoagulants was statistically non-significant (VKA, OR 0.9, p = 0.83; NOAC, OR 1.23, p = 0.42; heparin, OR 0.69, p = 0.35). Thus, NOACs were demonstrated to be at least as effective as other anticoagulants in the rate of LAA thrombus resolution. Upon multivariate-adjusted analysis, higher LAA emptying velocities were the only predictor of thrombus resolution. In conclusion, the majority of patients were already on anticoagulants. NOACs could be at least as effective as other anticoagulants, yielding an LAA thrombus resolution in two-thirds of patients. This may have clinical relevance, especially in patients undergoing cardioversion or catheter ablation.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Atrial fibrillation; Direct oral anticoagulants; Heparin; Left atrial appendage thrombus; Vitamin K antagonist;
English
Faggiano, P., Dinatolo, E., Moreo, A., De Chiara, B., Sbolli, M., Musca, F., et al. (2022). Prevalence and Rate of Resolution of Left Atrial Thrombus in Patients with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Two-Center Retrospective Real-World Study. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE, 11(6) [10.3390/jcm11061520].
Faggiano, P; Dinatolo, E; Moreo, A; De Chiara, B; Sbolli, M; Musca, F; Curnis, A; Belli, O; Giannattasio, C; Tomasi, C; Metra, M; Santangelo, G
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/373623
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