In the last two decades major improvements have been reached in the early diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and, besides chemotherapy, an ampler choice of therapeutic approaches is now available, including targeted and immunotherapy. Despite that, CRC remains a “big killer” mainly due to the development of resistance to therapies, especially when the disease is diagnosed after it is already metastatic. At the same time, our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying resistance has been rapidly expanding which allows the development of novel therapeutic options in order to overcome it. As far as resistance to chemotherapy is concerned, several contributors have been identified such as: intake/efflux systems upregulation; alterations in the DNA damage response, due to defect in the DNA checkpoint and repair systems; dysregulation of the expression of apoptotic/anti-apoptotic members of the BCL2 family; overexpression of oncogenic kinases; the presence of cancer stem cells; and the composition of the tumoral microenvironment and that of the gut microbiota. Interestingly, several mechanisms are also involved in the resistance to targeted and/or immunotherapy. For example, overexpression and/or hyperactivation and/or amplification of oncogenic kinases can sustain resistance to targeted therapy whereas the composition of the gut microbiota, as well as that of the tumoral niche, and defects in DNA repair systems are crucial for determining the response to immunotherapy. In this review we will make an overview of the main resistance mechanisms identified so far and of the new therapeutic approaches to overcome it.

Grassilli, E., & Cerrito, M. (2022). Emerging actionable targets to treat therapy-resistant colorectal cancers. CANCER DRUG RESISTANCE, 5(1), 36-63 [10.20517/cdr.2021.96].

Emerging actionable targets to treat therapy-resistant colorectal cancers

Grassilli E.
;
Cerrito M. G.
2022

Abstract

In the last two decades major improvements have been reached in the early diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and, besides chemotherapy, an ampler choice of therapeutic approaches is now available, including targeted and immunotherapy. Despite that, CRC remains a “big killer” mainly due to the development of resistance to therapies, especially when the disease is diagnosed after it is already metastatic. At the same time, our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying resistance has been rapidly expanding which allows the development of novel therapeutic options in order to overcome it. As far as resistance to chemotherapy is concerned, several contributors have been identified such as: intake/efflux systems upregulation; alterations in the DNA damage response, due to defect in the DNA checkpoint and repair systems; dysregulation of the expression of apoptotic/anti-apoptotic members of the BCL2 family; overexpression of oncogenic kinases; the presence of cancer stem cells; and the composition of the tumoral microenvironment and that of the gut microbiota. Interestingly, several mechanisms are also involved in the resistance to targeted and/or immunotherapy. For example, overexpression and/or hyperactivation and/or amplification of oncogenic kinases can sustain resistance to targeted therapy whereas the composition of the gut microbiota, as well as that of the tumoral niche, and defects in DNA repair systems are crucial for determining the response to immunotherapy. In this review we will make an overview of the main resistance mechanisms identified so far and of the new therapeutic approaches to overcome it.
Articolo in rivista - Review Essay
Scientifica
BRAF; chemotherapy; Colorectal cancer; EGFR; ERBB2; gut microbiota; immune checkpoint inhibitors; kinase inhibitors; MET; resistance; target therapy;
English
Grassilli, E., & Cerrito, M. (2022). Emerging actionable targets to treat therapy-resistant colorectal cancers. CANCER DRUG RESISTANCE, 5(1), 36-63 [10.20517/cdr.2021.96].
Grassilli, E; Cerrito, M
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10281/372884
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