Congestive heart failure is a lethal condition that affects an increasing number of patients. In recent years a great amount of data have accumulated on the pathophysiology and medical and surgical therapy of this condition. In spite of the advances in its management and the great number of patients affected, common errors are still made by internists and cardiologists in the use of drugs and therapeutic strategies. Digitalis has only recently been shown to affect hemodynamics, exercise capacity, and clinical symptoms, but the effects on survival still have to be demonstrated. Loop diuretics, eventually combined with thiazides and antialdosterone drugs in patients with clinical signs and symptoms of fluid retention, are the mainstays of therapy of congestive heart failure. In order to make diuretic therapy efficacious, moderate salt and water intake restriction is mandatory. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are now considered unavoidable drugs in the management of heart failure, and an attempt to reach the doses that have been shown to be efficacious for survival in the large trials has to be made in every patient with this condition. Other vasodilators, such as hydralazine and nitrates, which show a less pronounced effect on survival but more effective hemodynamic actions than ACE inhibitors, may be used to control mitral insufficiency or to improve hemodynamics in very sick patients. Hemodynamic instability refractory to increasing doses of vasodilators and diuretics is a severe condition that requires hospital admission to administer drugs parenterally. These patients are usually treated with the combination of catecholamines and phosphodiesterase inhibitors associated with intravenous diuretics until clinical stability is again achieved and oral therapy is resumed and restructured. The use of aggressive pharmacological therapy and phosphodiesterase inhibitors has reduced the need for assisted circulatory support in these patients. Beta-blockers have shown promising results when administered to patients with heart failure, although a definitive demonstration of their effects on survival is still lacking. Other additional measures that need to be considered in patients with end-stage congestive heart failure are the use of antiarrhythmic drugs and anticoagulation.

Binetti, G., Senni, M., Colombo, F., Tasca, G., Mamprin, F., Caporale, R., et al. (1996). Medical treatment of end-stage heart failure. CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS AND THERAPY, 10(2), 617-622 [10.1007/BF00052508].

Medical treatment of end-stage heart failure

Senni M;
1996

Abstract

Congestive heart failure is a lethal condition that affects an increasing number of patients. In recent years a great amount of data have accumulated on the pathophysiology and medical and surgical therapy of this condition. In spite of the advances in its management and the great number of patients affected, common errors are still made by internists and cardiologists in the use of drugs and therapeutic strategies. Digitalis has only recently been shown to affect hemodynamics, exercise capacity, and clinical symptoms, but the effects on survival still have to be demonstrated. Loop diuretics, eventually combined with thiazides and antialdosterone drugs in patients with clinical signs and symptoms of fluid retention, are the mainstays of therapy of congestive heart failure. In order to make diuretic therapy efficacious, moderate salt and water intake restriction is mandatory. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are now considered unavoidable drugs in the management of heart failure, and an attempt to reach the doses that have been shown to be efficacious for survival in the large trials has to be made in every patient with this condition. Other vasodilators, such as hydralazine and nitrates, which show a less pronounced effect on survival but more effective hemodynamic actions than ACE inhibitors, may be used to control mitral insufficiency or to improve hemodynamics in very sick patients. Hemodynamic instability refractory to increasing doses of vasodilators and diuretics is a severe condition that requires hospital admission to administer drugs parenterally. These patients are usually treated with the combination of catecholamines and phosphodiesterase inhibitors associated with intravenous diuretics until clinical stability is again achieved and oral therapy is resumed and restructured. The use of aggressive pharmacological therapy and phosphodiesterase inhibitors has reduced the need for assisted circulatory support in these patients. Beta-blockers have shown promising results when administered to patients with heart failure, although a definitive demonstration of their effects on survival is still lacking. Other additional measures that need to be considered in patients with end-stage congestive heart failure are the use of antiarrhythmic drugs and anticoagulation.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Congestive heart failure; Diuretics; End-stage heart failure; Vasodilators;
English
617
622
6
Binetti, G., Senni, M., Colombo, F., Tasca, G., Mamprin, F., Caporale, R., et al. (1996). Medical treatment of end-stage heart failure. CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS AND THERAPY, 10(2), 617-622 [10.1007/BF00052508].
Binetti, G; Senni, M; Colombo, F; Tasca, G; Mamprin, F; Caporale, R; Ferrazzi, P; Gamba, A; Glauber, M; Troise, G; Fiocchi, R
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/371646
Citazioni
  • Scopus 2
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 2
Social impact