Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) of non-enzymatic origin are mainly found in meat, fish, eggs and milk, mostly originating from the type of feeding, processing and storage. To verify the significance of COPs as biomarkers of cholesterol autoxidation and milk freshness, we quantified them in chocolates containing whole milk powders (WMPs) of increasing shelf-lives (i.e. 20, 120, and 180 days). Non-enzymatic total COPs (both free and esterified) ranged from 256.57 ± 11.97 to 445.82 ± 11.88 ng/g, increasing proportionally to the shelf-life of the WMPs, thus reflecting the ingredients' freshness. Based on the expected theoretical COPs, the effect of processing was quantitatively less significant in the generation of oxysterols (41-44%) than the contribution of the autoxidation of the WMPs over time (56-59%), pointing to the shelf-life as the primary determinant of COPs. Lastly, we quantified COPs of major commercial milk chocolates on the Italian market, which followed a similar distribution (from 240.79 ± 11.74 to 475.12 ± 12.58 ng/g). Although further replications of this work are needed, this study reports preliminary results and a practical example of a first application of non-enzymatic COPs as markers to further quantify and characterize the nutritional quality and freshness, not only of ingredients but also of composite products.

Risso, D., Leoni, V., Canzoneri, F., Arveda, M., Zivoli, R., Peraino, A., et al. (2022). Presence of cholesterol oxides in milk chocolates and their correlation with milk powder freshness. PLOS ONE, 17(3) [10.1371/journal.pone.0264288].

Presence of cholesterol oxides in milk chocolates and their correlation with milk powder freshness

Leoni V.;
2022

Abstract

Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) of non-enzymatic origin are mainly found in meat, fish, eggs and milk, mostly originating from the type of feeding, processing and storage. To verify the significance of COPs as biomarkers of cholesterol autoxidation and milk freshness, we quantified them in chocolates containing whole milk powders (WMPs) of increasing shelf-lives (i.e. 20, 120, and 180 days). Non-enzymatic total COPs (both free and esterified) ranged from 256.57 ± 11.97 to 445.82 ± 11.88 ng/g, increasing proportionally to the shelf-life of the WMPs, thus reflecting the ingredients' freshness. Based on the expected theoretical COPs, the effect of processing was quantitatively less significant in the generation of oxysterols (41-44%) than the contribution of the autoxidation of the WMPs over time (56-59%), pointing to the shelf-life as the primary determinant of COPs. Lastly, we quantified COPs of major commercial milk chocolates on the Italian market, which followed a similar distribution (from 240.79 ± 11.74 to 475.12 ± 12.58 ng/g). Although further replications of this work are needed, this study reports preliminary results and a practical example of a first application of non-enzymatic COPs as markers to further quantify and characterize the nutritional quality and freshness, not only of ingredients but also of composite products.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
oxysterols, food, oxidative stress;
English
Risso, D., Leoni, V., Canzoneri, F., Arveda, M., Zivoli, R., Peraino, A., et al. (2022). Presence of cholesterol oxides in milk chocolates and their correlation with milk powder freshness. PLOS ONE, 17(3) [10.1371/journal.pone.0264288].
Risso, D; Leoni, V; Canzoneri, F; Arveda, M; Zivoli, R; Peraino, A; Poli, G; Menta, R
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
95_Risso_etal_PLOS_One_2022_17_e0264288.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia di allegato: Publisher’s Version (Version of Record, VoR)
Dimensione 560.45 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
560.45 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/369460
Citazioni
  • Scopus 3
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 2
Social impact