We use a robust analytical model together with a high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulation to demonstrate that in a Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) universe, a small fraction of dwarf galaxies inhabiting dark matter (DM) halos in the mass range 3 × 109 ≲ M200/Me ≾ 1010 form unusually late (z < 3) compared to the bulk population of galaxies. These galaxies originate from the interplay between the stochastic growth of DM halos and the existence of a time-dependent DM halo mass below which galaxies do not form. The formation epoch of the simulated late-forming galaxies traces remarkably well the time when their host DM halos first exceeded a nontrivial (but well-understood) time-dependent critical mass, thus making late-forming dwarfs attractive cosmological probes with constraining power over the past growth history of their host halos. The agreement between our model and the simulation results demonstrates that the population of simulated late-forming dwarfs is a robust cosmological outcome and largely independent of the specific galaxy formation model included in the simulations provided: (1) the universe underwent cosmic reionization before zre ~ 8; (2) star formation proceeds in gas that self-gravitates; and (3) galaxy formation is largely restricted to atomic-cooling halos before zre. The scarcity of massive late-forming dwarfs expected in ΛCDM implies that the great majority of bright, metal-poor, and actively star-forming dwarfs observed in our local universe-the most obvious candidates for these late-forming galaxies-cannot be undergoing their formation for the first time at the present day in a ΛCDM universe.

Benitez-Llambay, A., & Fumagalli, M. (2021). The tail of late-forming dwarf galaxies in ΛCDM. THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS, 921(1) [10.3847/2041-8213/ac3006].

The tail of late-forming dwarf galaxies in ΛCDM

Benitez-Llambay A.
;
Fumagalli M.
2021

Abstract

We use a robust analytical model together with a high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulation to demonstrate that in a Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) universe, a small fraction of dwarf galaxies inhabiting dark matter (DM) halos in the mass range 3 × 109 ≲ M200/Me ≾ 1010 form unusually late (z < 3) compared to the bulk population of galaxies. These galaxies originate from the interplay between the stochastic growth of DM halos and the existence of a time-dependent DM halo mass below which galaxies do not form. The formation epoch of the simulated late-forming galaxies traces remarkably well the time when their host DM halos first exceeded a nontrivial (but well-understood) time-dependent critical mass, thus making late-forming dwarfs attractive cosmological probes with constraining power over the past growth history of their host halos. The agreement between our model and the simulation results demonstrates that the population of simulated late-forming dwarfs is a robust cosmological outcome and largely independent of the specific galaxy formation model included in the simulations provided: (1) the universe underwent cosmic reionization before zre ~ 8; (2) star formation proceeds in gas that self-gravitates; and (3) galaxy formation is largely restricted to atomic-cooling halos before zre. The scarcity of massive late-forming dwarfs expected in ΛCDM implies that the great majority of bright, metal-poor, and actively star-forming dwarfs observed in our local universe-the most obvious candidates for these late-forming galaxies-cannot be undergoing their formation for the first time at the present day in a ΛCDM universe.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Scientifica
Dwarf galaxies; Compact dwarf galaxies; Galaxy formation; Reionization;
English
Benitez-Llambay, A., & Fumagalli, M. (2021). The tail of late-forming dwarf galaxies in ΛCDM. THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS, 921(1) [10.3847/2041-8213/ac3006].
Benitez-Llambay, A; Fumagalli, M
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10281/367638
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