During infection, bacteria use an arsenal of resistance mechanisms to negate antibiotic therapies. In addition, pathogenic bacteria form surface-attached biofilms bearing enriched populations of metabolically dormant persister cells. Bacteria develop resistance in response to antibiotic insults; however, nonreplicating biofilms are innately tolerant to all classes of antibiotics. As such, molecules that can eradicate antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-tolerant bacteria are of importance. Here, we report modular synthetic routes to fluorine-containing halogenated phenazine (HP) and halogenated acridine (HA) agents with potent antibacterial and biofilm-killing activities. Nine fluorinated phenazines were rapidly accessed through a synthetic strategy involving (1) oxidation of fluorinated anilines to azobenzene intermediates, (2) SNAr with 2-methoxyaniline, and (3) cyclization to phenazines upon treatment with trifluoroacetic acid. Five structurally related acridine heterocycles were synthesized using SNAr and Buchwald–Hartwig approaches. From this focused collection, phenazines 5g, 5h, 5i, and acridine 9c demonstrated potent antibacterial activities against Gram-positive pathogens (MIC = 0.04–0.78 μM). Additionally, 5g and 9c eradicated Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis biofilms with excellent potency (5g, MBEC = 4.69–6.25 μM; 9c, MBEC = 4.69–50 μM). Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), 5g, 5h, 5i, and 9c rapidly induce the transcription of iron uptake biomarkers isdB and sbnC in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) biofilms, and we conclude that these agents operate through iron starvation. Overall, fluorinated phenazine and acridine agents could lead to ground-breaking advances in the treatment of challenging bacterial infections.

Liu, K., Brivio, M., Xiao, T., Norwood, V., Kim, Y., Jin, S., et al. (2022). Modular Synthetic Routes to Fluorine-Containing Halogenated Phenazine and Acridine Agents That Induce Rapid Iron Starvation in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms. ACS INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 8(2), 280-295 [10.1021/acsinfecdis.1c00402].

Modular Synthetic Routes to Fluorine-Containing Halogenated Phenazine and Acridine Agents That Induce Rapid Iron Starvation in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

Papagni A.
;
Vaghi L.
;
2022

Abstract

During infection, bacteria use an arsenal of resistance mechanisms to negate antibiotic therapies. In addition, pathogenic bacteria form surface-attached biofilms bearing enriched populations of metabolically dormant persister cells. Bacteria develop resistance in response to antibiotic insults; however, nonreplicating biofilms are innately tolerant to all classes of antibiotics. As such, molecules that can eradicate antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-tolerant bacteria are of importance. Here, we report modular synthetic routes to fluorine-containing halogenated phenazine (HP) and halogenated acridine (HA) agents with potent antibacterial and biofilm-killing activities. Nine fluorinated phenazines were rapidly accessed through a synthetic strategy involving (1) oxidation of fluorinated anilines to azobenzene intermediates, (2) SNAr with 2-methoxyaniline, and (3) cyclization to phenazines upon treatment with trifluoroacetic acid. Five structurally related acridine heterocycles were synthesized using SNAr and Buchwald–Hartwig approaches. From this focused collection, phenazines 5g, 5h, 5i, and acridine 9c demonstrated potent antibacterial activities against Gram-positive pathogens (MIC = 0.04–0.78 μM). Additionally, 5g and 9c eradicated Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis biofilms with excellent potency (5g, MBEC = 4.69–6.25 μM; 9c, MBEC = 4.69–50 μM). Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), 5g, 5h, 5i, and 9c rapidly induce the transcription of iron uptake biomarkers isdB and sbnC in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) biofilms, and we conclude that these agents operate through iron starvation. Overall, fluorinated phenazine and acridine agents could lead to ground-breaking advances in the treatment of challenging bacterial infections.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
antibacterial agents; biofilm-eradicating agents; chemical synthesis; halogenated acridine; halogenated phenazine; iron starvation;
English
280
295
16
Liu, K., Brivio, M., Xiao, T., Norwood, V., Kim, Y., Jin, S., et al. (2022). Modular Synthetic Routes to Fluorine-Containing Halogenated Phenazine and Acridine Agents That Induce Rapid Iron Starvation in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms. ACS INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 8(2), 280-295 [10.1021/acsinfecdis.1c00402].
Liu, K; Brivio, M; Xiao, T; Norwood, V; Kim, Y; Jin, S; Papagni, A; Vaghi, L; Huigens, R
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/356041
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