Background & Aims: Good outcomes after liver transplantation (LT) have been reported after successfully downstaging to Milan criteria in more advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to compare post-LT outcomes in patients receiving locoregional therapies (LRT) before LT according to Milan criteria and University of California San Francisco downstaging (UCSF-DS) protocol and ‘all-comers’. Methods: This multicentre cohort study included patients who received any LRT before LT from Europe and Latin America (2000–2018). We excluded patients with alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) above 1,000 ng/ml. Competing risk regression analysis for HCC recurrence was conducted, estimating subdistribution hazard ratios (SHRs) and corresponding 95% CIs. Results: From 2,441 LT patients, 70.1% received LRT before LT (n = 1,711). Of these, 80.6% were within Milan, 12.0% within UCSF-DS, and 7.4% all-comers. Successful downstaging was achieved in 45.2% (CI 34.8–55.8) and 38.2% (CI 25.4–52.3) of the UCSF-DS group and all-comers, respectively. The risk of recurrence was higher for all-comers (SHR 6.01 [p <0.0001]) and not significantly higher for the UCSF-DS group (SHR 1.60 [p = 0.32]), compared with patients remaining within Milan. The all-comers presented more frequent features of aggressive HCC and higher tumour burden at explant. Among the UCSF-DS group, an AFP value of ≤20 ng/ml at listing was associated with lower recurrence (SHR 2.01 [p = 0.006]) and better survival. However, recurrence was still significantly high irrespective of AFP ≤20 ng/ml in all-comers. Conclusions: Patients within the UCSF-DS protocol at listing have similar post-transplant outcomes compared with those within Milan when successfully downstaged. Meanwhile, all-comers have a higher recurrence and inferior survival irrespective of response to LRT. Additionally, in the UCSF-DS group, an ALP of ≤20 ng/ml might be a novel tool to optimise selection of candidates for LT. Clinical trial number: This study was registered as part of an open public registry (NCT03775863). Lay summary: Patients with more extended HCC (within the UCSF-DS protocol) successfully downstaged to the conventional Milan criteria do not have a higher recurrence rate after LT compared with the group remaining in the Milan criteria from listing to transplantation. Moreover, in the UCSF-DS patient group, an ALP value equal to or below 20 ng/ml at listing might be a novel tool to further optimise selection of candidates for LT.

Degroote, H., Piñero, F., Costentin, C., Notarpaolo, A., Boin, I., Boudjema, K., et al. (2021). International study on the outcome of locoregional therapy for liver transplant in hepatocellular carcinoma beyond Milan criteria. JHEP REPORTS, 3(5) [10.1016/j.jhepr.2021.100331].

International study on the outcome of locoregional therapy for liver transplant in hepatocellular carcinoma beyond Milan criteria

Fagiuoli S;
2021

Abstract

Background & Aims: Good outcomes after liver transplantation (LT) have been reported after successfully downstaging to Milan criteria in more advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to compare post-LT outcomes in patients receiving locoregional therapies (LRT) before LT according to Milan criteria and University of California San Francisco downstaging (UCSF-DS) protocol and ‘all-comers’. Methods: This multicentre cohort study included patients who received any LRT before LT from Europe and Latin America (2000–2018). We excluded patients with alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) above 1,000 ng/ml. Competing risk regression analysis for HCC recurrence was conducted, estimating subdistribution hazard ratios (SHRs) and corresponding 95% CIs. Results: From 2,441 LT patients, 70.1% received LRT before LT (n = 1,711). Of these, 80.6% were within Milan, 12.0% within UCSF-DS, and 7.4% all-comers. Successful downstaging was achieved in 45.2% (CI 34.8–55.8) and 38.2% (CI 25.4–52.3) of the UCSF-DS group and all-comers, respectively. The risk of recurrence was higher for all-comers (SHR 6.01 [p <0.0001]) and not significantly higher for the UCSF-DS group (SHR 1.60 [p = 0.32]), compared with patients remaining within Milan. The all-comers presented more frequent features of aggressive HCC and higher tumour burden at explant. Among the UCSF-DS group, an AFP value of ≤20 ng/ml at listing was associated with lower recurrence (SHR 2.01 [p = 0.006]) and better survival. However, recurrence was still significantly high irrespective of AFP ≤20 ng/ml in all-comers. Conclusions: Patients within the UCSF-DS protocol at listing have similar post-transplant outcomes compared with those within Milan when successfully downstaged. Meanwhile, all-comers have a higher recurrence and inferior survival irrespective of response to LRT. Additionally, in the UCSF-DS group, an ALP of ≤20 ng/ml might be a novel tool to optimise selection of candidates for LT. Clinical trial number: This study was registered as part of an open public registry (NCT03775863). Lay summary: Patients with more extended HCC (within the UCSF-DS protocol) successfully downstaged to the conventional Milan criteria do not have a higher recurrence rate after LT compared with the group remaining in the Milan criteria from listing to transplantation. Moreover, in the UCSF-DS patient group, an ALP value equal to or below 20 ng/ml at listing might be a novel tool to further optimise selection of candidates for LT.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
All-comers; Alpha-foetoprotein; Downstaging; Hepatocellular carcinoma; UCSF downstaging protocol;
English
Degroote, H., Piñero, F., Costentin, C., Notarpaolo, A., Boin, I., Boudjema, K., et al. (2021). International study on the outcome of locoregional therapy for liver transplant in hepatocellular carcinoma beyond Milan criteria. JHEP REPORTS, 3(5) [10.1016/j.jhepr.2021.100331].
Degroote, H; Piñero, F; Costentin, C; Notarpaolo, A; Boin, I; Boudjema, K; Baccaro, C; Chagas, A; Bachellier, P; Ettorre, G; Poniachik, J; Muscari, F; Di Benedetto, F; Duque, S; Salame, E; Cillo, U; Gadano, A; Vanlemmens, C; Fagiuoli, S; Rubinstein, F; Burra, P; Cherqui, D; Silva, M; Van Vlierberghe, H; Duvoux, C
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/353415
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