Background: Glucocorticoids (GCs) plus rituximab (RTX) represent the first-line treatment of nonviral mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis (CryoVas). However, data on therapeutic management and outcome of patients refractory to RTX are lacking. Methods: We conducted a European collaborative retrospective multicenter study of patients with nonviral mixed CryoVas refractory to RTX and performed a literature review. Results: Twenty-six original cases and 7 additional patients from the literature were included. All patients but one had type 2 cryoglobulinemia, and causes were autoimmune disease (51%), malignant hemopathy (12%) or essential CryoVas (42%). CryoVas was primary refractory to RTX in 42%, while 58% had an initial response to RTX before immune escape. After RTX failure, patients received a median of 1 (IQR, 1–3) line of treatment, representing 65 treatment periods during follow-up. Main treatments used were GCs in 92%, alkylating agents in 43%, RTX in combination with other treatments in 46%, and belimumab in 17%. Combination of anti-CD20 plus belimumab, alkylating agents alone and anti-CD20 plus alkylating agents provided the highest rates of clinical response in 100% 82% and 73%, respectively, but showed poor immunological response, in 50%, 30% and 38%, respectively. Rates of severe infection were 57%, 9% and 0% in patients receiving anti-CD20 plus belimumab, alkylating agents alone and anti-CD20 plus alkylating agents, respectively. Conclusion: In patients with nonviral mixed CryoVas refractory to RTX, anti-CD20 plus belimumab, and alkylating agents associated or not with anti-CD20, provide the highest rates of clinical response. However, anti-CD20 plus belimumab was frequently associated with severe infections.

Pouchelon, C., Visentini, M., Emmi, G., le Guern, V., Quartuccio, L., Samson, M., et al. (2022). Management of nonviral mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis refractory to rituximab: Data from a European collaborative study and review of the literature. AUTOIMMUNITY REVIEWS, 21(4 (April 2022)) [10.1016/j.autrev.2022.103034].

Management of nonviral mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis refractory to rituximab: Data from a European collaborative study and review of the literature

Sinico R. A.
Penultimo
;
2022

Abstract

Background: Glucocorticoids (GCs) plus rituximab (RTX) represent the first-line treatment of nonviral mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis (CryoVas). However, data on therapeutic management and outcome of patients refractory to RTX are lacking. Methods: We conducted a European collaborative retrospective multicenter study of patients with nonviral mixed CryoVas refractory to RTX and performed a literature review. Results: Twenty-six original cases and 7 additional patients from the literature were included. All patients but one had type 2 cryoglobulinemia, and causes were autoimmune disease (51%), malignant hemopathy (12%) or essential CryoVas (42%). CryoVas was primary refractory to RTX in 42%, while 58% had an initial response to RTX before immune escape. After RTX failure, patients received a median of 1 (IQR, 1–3) line of treatment, representing 65 treatment periods during follow-up. Main treatments used were GCs in 92%, alkylating agents in 43%, RTX in combination with other treatments in 46%, and belimumab in 17%. Combination of anti-CD20 plus belimumab, alkylating agents alone and anti-CD20 plus alkylating agents provided the highest rates of clinical response in 100% 82% and 73%, respectively, but showed poor immunological response, in 50%, 30% and 38%, respectively. Rates of severe infection were 57%, 9% and 0% in patients receiving anti-CD20 plus belimumab, alkylating agents alone and anti-CD20 plus alkylating agents, respectively. Conclusion: In patients with nonviral mixed CryoVas refractory to RTX, anti-CD20 plus belimumab, and alkylating agents associated or not with anti-CD20, provide the highest rates of clinical response. However, anti-CD20 plus belimumab was frequently associated with severe infections.
Articolo in rivista - Review Essay
Alkylating agents; Belimumab; Cryoglobulinemia vasculitis; Refractory; Rituximab;
English
Pouchelon, C., Visentini, M., Emmi, G., le Guern, V., Quartuccio, L., Samson, M., et al. (2022). Management of nonviral mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis refractory to rituximab: Data from a European collaborative study and review of the literature. AUTOIMMUNITY REVIEWS, 21(4 (April 2022)) [10.1016/j.autrev.2022.103034].
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/344407
Citazioni
  • Scopus 3
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
Social impact