Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects a quarter of the adult world population and the degree of liver fibrosis represents the best predictor of the development of liver-related outcomes. Easily applicable and well performing non-invasive fibrosis tests can overcome the limitations of liver biopsy and are of paramount importance to identify at-risk subjects in clinical practice. While tests with optimal performance and ease of use do not exist at this stage, available markers can be divided in three broad groups: simple serum tests, complex serum tests and elastographic methods. Simple scores (such as Fibrosis-4 and NAFLD Fibrosis Score) are based on readily available biochemical data and clinical features, while complex/proprietary tests (such as Fibrotest, Enhanced Liver Fibrosis and Hepascore) directly measure markers of fibrogenesis and fibrolysis, but have higher costs. Elastography techniques estimate the degree of fibrosis from liver stiffness and are based on either ultrasound or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MR elastography has better performance compared with sonographic techniques and is not affected by obesity and inflammation, but is highly costly and less available. In general, non-invasive tests are able to exclude the presence of fibrosis, but their positive predictive value is low to moderate and they lead to a high number of indeterminate results. In this context, a combination of different tests might increase accuracy while reducing gray-zone results. Their ability to predict future events and response to treatment is suboptimal and needs to be studied further. Finally, recent studies have tried different approaches, spanning from “omics” to the microbiome and micro-RNAs, with some promising results.

Ciardullo, S., Perseghin, G. (2022). Advances in fibrosis biomarkers in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. ADVANCES IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY, 106(January 2022), 33-65 [10.1016/bs.acc.2021.09.003].

Advances in fibrosis biomarkers in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Ciardullo S.
Primo
;
Perseghin G.
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects a quarter of the adult world population and the degree of liver fibrosis represents the best predictor of the development of liver-related outcomes. Easily applicable and well performing non-invasive fibrosis tests can overcome the limitations of liver biopsy and are of paramount importance to identify at-risk subjects in clinical practice. While tests with optimal performance and ease of use do not exist at this stage, available markers can be divided in three broad groups: simple serum tests, complex serum tests and elastographic methods. Simple scores (such as Fibrosis-4 and NAFLD Fibrosis Score) are based on readily available biochemical data and clinical features, while complex/proprietary tests (such as Fibrotest, Enhanced Liver Fibrosis and Hepascore) directly measure markers of fibrogenesis and fibrolysis, but have higher costs. Elastography techniques estimate the degree of fibrosis from liver stiffness and are based on either ultrasound or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MR elastography has better performance compared with sonographic techniques and is not affected by obesity and inflammation, but is highly costly and less available. In general, non-invasive tests are able to exclude the presence of fibrosis, but their positive predictive value is low to moderate and they lead to a high number of indeterminate results. In this context, a combination of different tests might increase accuracy while reducing gray-zone results. Their ability to predict future events and response to treatment is suboptimal and needs to be studied further. Finally, recent studies have tried different approaches, spanning from “omics” to the microbiome and micro-RNAs, with some promising results.
Articolo in rivista - Review Essay
Elastography; Fibrosis; MAFLD; NAFLD; NASH; Noninvasive; Screening;
English
33
65
33
Ciardullo, S., Perseghin, G. (2022). Advances in fibrosis biomarkers in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. ADVANCES IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY, 106(January 2022), 33-65 [10.1016/bs.acc.2021.09.003].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/335432
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