L-Glutamic acid acts as the major excitatory neurotransmitter and, at the same time, represents a potential neurotoxin for the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The termination of excitatory transmission and the maintenance of physiologic levels of extracellular glutamate, which is necessary to prevent excitotoxicity, are prominently mediated by a family of high-affinity sodium-dependent excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). Five subtypes of EAATs have been cloned, possessing distinct pharmacology, localization, sensitivity to transport inhibitors and modulatory mechanisms. Expression and activity of EAATs have been shown to be amenable to fine endogenous and, potentially, pharmacological regulation by substrate itself, growth factors, second messengers, hormones, biological oxidants, inflammatory mediators and pathological conditions. The present review describes basic pharmacological studies, mostly performed on animal models or cell preparations, in order to obtain an updated picture of the known regulatory mechanisms of single EAAT expression and activity. New insight into molecular pathways involved in EAAT regulation will allow pharmacological manipulation of excitatory CNS activity, possibly avoiding adverse effects of glutamate receptor blockade.
Beretta, S., Begni, B., & Ferrarese, C. (2003). Pharmacological manipulation of glutamate transport. DRUG NEWS & PERSPECTIVES, 16(7), 435-45.
|Citazione:||Beretta, S., Begni, B., & Ferrarese, C. (2003). Pharmacological manipulation of glutamate transport. DRUG NEWS & PERSPECTIVES, 16(7), 435-45.|
|Tipo:||Recensione in rivista|
|Carattere della pubblicazione:||Scientifica|
|Titolo:||Pharmacological manipulation of glutamate transport|
|Autori:||Beretta, S; Begni, B; Ferrarese, C|
|Data di pubblicazione:||set-2003|
|Rivista:||DRUG NEWS & PERSPECTIVES|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su rivista|