Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous lipid produced on demand by neurons and glial cells that displays neuroprotective properties. It is well known that inflammation and neuronal damage are strictly related processes and that microglia play a pivotal role in their regulation. The aim of the present work was to assess whether PEA could exert its neuroprotective and antiinflammatory effects through the modulation of microglia reactive phenotypes. In N9 microglial cells, the pre-incubation with PEA blunted the increase of M1 pro-inflammatory markers induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), concomitantly increasing those M2 anti-inflammatory markers. Images of microglial cells were processed to obtain a set of morphological parameters that highlighted the ability of PEA to inhibit the LPS-induced M1 polarization and suggested that PEA might induce the anti-inflammatory M2a phenotype. Functionally, PEA prevented Ca2+ transients in both N9 cells and primary microglia and antagonized the neuronal hyperexcitability induced by LPS, as revealed by multi-electrode array (MEA) measurements on primary cortical cultures of neurons, microglia, and astrocyte. Finally, the investigation of the molecular pathway indicated that PEA effects are not mediated by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4); on the contrary, a partial involvement of cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R) was shown by using a selective receptor inverse agonist.

D'aloia, A., Molteni, L., Gullo, F., Bresciani, E., Artusa, V., Rizzi, L., et al. (2021). Palmitoylethanolamide modulation of microglia activation: Characterization of mechanisms of action and implication for its neuroprotective effects. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, 22(6), 1-24 [10.3390/ijms22063054].

Palmitoylethanolamide modulation of microglia activation: Characterization of mechanisms of action and implication for its neuroprotective effects

D'aloia A.
Co-primo
;
Molteni L.
Co-primo
;
Gullo F.;Bresciani E.;Artusa V.;Rizzi L.;Ceriani M.;Meanti R.;Lecchi M.;Coco S.;Costa B.
Penultimo
;
Torsello A.
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous lipid produced on demand by neurons and glial cells that displays neuroprotective properties. It is well known that inflammation and neuronal damage are strictly related processes and that microglia play a pivotal role in their regulation. The aim of the present work was to assess whether PEA could exert its neuroprotective and antiinflammatory effects through the modulation of microglia reactive phenotypes. In N9 microglial cells, the pre-incubation with PEA blunted the increase of M1 pro-inflammatory markers induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), concomitantly increasing those M2 anti-inflammatory markers. Images of microglial cells were processed to obtain a set of morphological parameters that highlighted the ability of PEA to inhibit the LPS-induced M1 polarization and suggested that PEA might induce the anti-inflammatory M2a phenotype. Functionally, PEA prevented Ca2+ transients in both N9 cells and primary microglia and antagonized the neuronal hyperexcitability induced by LPS, as revealed by multi-electrode array (MEA) measurements on primary cortical cultures of neurons, microglia, and astrocyte. Finally, the investigation of the molecular pathway indicated that PEA effects are not mediated by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4); on the contrary, a partial involvement of cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R) was shown by using a selective receptor inverse agonist.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Scientifica
Cannabinoid receptor; Cytokines; Electrophysiology; LPS; Microglia; Morphotypes; Neuroinflammation; Palmitoylethanolamide;
English
D'aloia, A., Molteni, L., Gullo, F., Bresciani, E., Artusa, V., Rizzi, L., et al. (2021). Palmitoylethanolamide modulation of microglia activation: Characterization of mechanisms of action and implication for its neuroprotective effects. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, 22(6), 1-24 [10.3390/ijms22063054].
D'Aloia, A; Molteni, L; Gullo, F; Bresciani, E; Artusa, V; Rizzi, L; Ceriani, M; Meanti, R; Lecchi, M; Coco, S; Costa, B; Torsello, A
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10281/315258
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