Cells challenged by photosensitized oxidations face strong redox stresses and rely on autophagy to either survive or die. However, the use of macroautophagy/autophagy to improve the efficiency of photosensitizers, in terms of inducing cell death, remains unexplored. Here, we addressed the concept that a parallel damage in the membranes of mitochondria and lysosomes leads to a scenario of autophagy malfunction that can greatly improve the efficiency of the photosensitizer to cause cell death. Specific damage to these organelles was induced by irradiation of cells pretreated with 2 phenothiazinium salts, methylene blue (MB) and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue (DMMB). At a low concentration level (10 nM), only DMMB could induce mitochondrial damage, leading to mitophagy activation, which did not progress to completion because of the parallel damage in lysosome, triggering cell death. MB-induced photodamage was perceived almost instantaneously after irradiation, in response to a massive and nonspecific oxidative stress at a higher concentration range (2 µM). We showed that the parallel damage in mitochondria and lysosomes activates and inhibits mitophagy, leading to a late and more efficient cell death, offering significant advantage (2 orders of magnitude) over photosensitizers that cause unspecific oxidative stress. We are confident that this concept can be used to develop better light-activated drugs. Abbreviations: ΔΨm: mitochondrial transmembrane inner potential; AAU: autophagy arbitrary units; ATG5, autophagy related 5; ATG7: autophagy related 7; BAF: bafilomycin A1; BSA: bovine serum albumin; CASP3: caspase 3; CF: carboxyfluorescein; CTSB: cathepsin B; CVS: crystal violet staining; DCF: dichlorofluorescein; DCFH2: 2ʹ,7ʹ-dichlorodihydrofluorescein; DMMB: 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; HaCaT: non-malignant immortal keratinocyte cell line from adult human skin; HP: hydrogen peroxide; LC3B-II: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta-II; LMP: lysosomal membrane permeabilization; LTG: LysoTracker™ Green DND-26; LTR: LysoTracker™ Red DND-99; 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; MB: methylene blue; mtDNA: mitochondrial DNA; MitoSOX™: red mitochondrial superoxide probe; MTDR: MitoTracker™ Deep Red FM; MTO: MitoTracker™ Orange CMTMRos; MT-ND1: mitochondrially encoded NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 1; MTT: methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide; 1O2: singlet oxygen; OH. hydroxil radical; PRKN/parkin: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PI: propidium iodide; PDT: photodynamic therapy; PS: photosensitizer; QPCR: gene-specific quantitative PCR-based; Rh123: rhodamine 123; ROS: reactive oxygen species RTN: rotenone; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; SUVs: small unilamellar vesicles; TBS: Tris-buffered saline.

Martins, W., Santos, N., Rocha, C., Bacellar, I., Tsubone, T., Viotto, A., et al. (2019). Parallel damage in mitochondria and lysosomes is an efficient way to photoinduce cell death. AUTOPHAGY, 15(2), 259-279 [10.1080/15548627.2018.1515609].

Parallel damage in mitochondria and lysosomes is an efficient way to photoinduce cell death

Siani, Paulo;
2019

Abstract

Cells challenged by photosensitized oxidations face strong redox stresses and rely on autophagy to either survive or die. However, the use of macroautophagy/autophagy to improve the efficiency of photosensitizers, in terms of inducing cell death, remains unexplored. Here, we addressed the concept that a parallel damage in the membranes of mitochondria and lysosomes leads to a scenario of autophagy malfunction that can greatly improve the efficiency of the photosensitizer to cause cell death. Specific damage to these organelles was induced by irradiation of cells pretreated with 2 phenothiazinium salts, methylene blue (MB) and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue (DMMB). At a low concentration level (10 nM), only DMMB could induce mitochondrial damage, leading to mitophagy activation, which did not progress to completion because of the parallel damage in lysosome, triggering cell death. MB-induced photodamage was perceived almost instantaneously after irradiation, in response to a massive and nonspecific oxidative stress at a higher concentration range (2 µM). We showed that the parallel damage in mitochondria and lysosomes activates and inhibits mitophagy, leading to a late and more efficient cell death, offering significant advantage (2 orders of magnitude) over photosensitizers that cause unspecific oxidative stress. We are confident that this concept can be used to develop better light-activated drugs. Abbreviations: ΔΨm: mitochondrial transmembrane inner potential; AAU: autophagy arbitrary units; ATG5, autophagy related 5; ATG7: autophagy related 7; BAF: bafilomycin A1; BSA: bovine serum albumin; CASP3: caspase 3; CF: carboxyfluorescein; CTSB: cathepsin B; CVS: crystal violet staining; DCF: dichlorofluorescein; DCFH2: 2ʹ,7ʹ-dichlorodihydrofluorescein; DMMB: 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; HaCaT: non-malignant immortal keratinocyte cell line from adult human skin; HP: hydrogen peroxide; LC3B-II: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta-II; LMP: lysosomal membrane permeabilization; LTG: LysoTracker™ Green DND-26; LTR: LysoTracker™ Red DND-99; 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; MB: methylene blue; mtDNA: mitochondrial DNA; MitoSOX™: red mitochondrial superoxide probe; MTDR: MitoTracker™ Deep Red FM; MTO: MitoTracker™ Orange CMTMRos; MT-ND1: mitochondrially encoded NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 1; MTT: methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide; 1O2: singlet oxygen; OH. hydroxil radical; PRKN/parkin: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PI: propidium iodide; PDT: photodynamic therapy; PS: photosensitizer; QPCR: gene-specific quantitative PCR-based; Rh123: rhodamine 123; ROS: reactive oxygen species RTN: rotenone; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; SUVs: small unilamellar vesicles; TBS: Tris-buffered saline.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Scientifica
Cell death; membrane damage; methylene blue; mitophagy; phenothiazines; photodynamic efficiency;
Cell death, membrane damage, methylene blue, mitophagy, phenothiazines, photodynamic efficiency
English
Martins, W., Santos, N., Rocha, C., Bacellar, I., Tsubone, T., Viotto, A., et al. (2019). Parallel damage in mitochondria and lysosomes is an efficient way to photoinduce cell death. AUTOPHAGY, 15(2), 259-279 [10.1080/15548627.2018.1515609].
Martins, W; Santos, N; Rocha, C; Bacellar, I; Tsubone, T; Viotto, A; Matsukuma, A; Abrantes, A; Siani, P; Dias, L; Baptista, M
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10281/287959
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