Background: The presence of an endotracheal tube is the main cause for developing ventilator- associated pneumonia (VAP), but pneumonia can still develop in hospitalized patients after endotracheal tube removal (postextubation pneumonia [PEP]). We hypothesized that short-term intubation (24 hours) can play a role in the pathogenesis of PEP. To test such hypothesis, we initially evaluated the occurrence of lung colonization and VAP in sheep that were intubated and mechanically ventilated for 24 hours. Subsequently, we assessed the incidence of lung colonization and PEP at 48 hours after extubation in sheep previously ventilated for 24 hours. Methods: To simulate intubated intensive care unit patients placed in semirecumbent position, 14 sheep were intubated and mechanically ventilated with the head elevated 30° above horizontal. Seven of them were euthanized after 24 hours (Control Group), whereas the remaining were euthanized after being awaken, extubated, and left spontaneously breathing for 48 hours after extubation (Awake Group). Criteria of clinical diagnosis of pneumonia were tested. Microbiological evaluation was performed on autopsy in all sheep. Results: Only 1 sheep in the Control Group met the criteria of VAP after 24 hours of mechanical ventilation. However, heavy pathogenic bacteria colonization of trachea, bronchi, and lungs (range, 104-109 colony-forming unit [CFU]/g) was reported in 4 of 7 sheep (57%). In the Awake Group, 1 sheep was diagnosed with VAP and 3 developed PEP within 48 hours after extubation (42%), with 1 euthanized at 30 hours because of respiratory failure. On autopsy, 5 sheep (71%) confirmed pathogenic bacterial growth in the lower respiratory tract (range, 103-109 CFU/g). Conclusions: Twenty-four hours of intubation and mechanical ventilation in semirecumbent position leads to significant pathogenic colonization of the lower airways, which can promote the development of PEP. Strategies directed to prevent pathogenic microbiological colonization before and after mechanical ventilation should be considered to avert the onset of PEP.
Rezoagli, E., Zanella, A., Cressoni, M., De Marchi, L., Kolobow, T., & Berra, L. (2017). Pathogenic link between postextubation pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia: An experimental study. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 124(4), 1339-1346 [10.1213/ANE.0000000000001899].
|Citazione:||Rezoagli, E., Zanella, A., Cressoni, M., De Marchi, L., Kolobow, T., & Berra, L. (2017). Pathogenic link between postextubation pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia: An experimental study. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 124(4), 1339-1346 [10.1213/ANE.0000000000001899].|
|Tipo:||Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico|
|Carattere della pubblicazione:||Scientifica|
|Presenza di un coautore afferente ad Istituzioni straniere:||Si|
|Titolo:||Pathogenic link between postextubation pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia: An experimental study|
|Autori:||Rezoagli, E; Zanella, A; Cressoni, M; De Marchi, L; Kolobow, T; Berra, L|
REZOAGLI, EMANUELE (Primo)
ZANELLA, ALBERTO (Secondo)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Rivista:||ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000001899|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su rivista|