Thrombosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. The pathogenesis of blood coagulation activation in oncological patients is complex and involves both clinical and biological factors. Abnormalities in one or more coagulation test are common in cancer patients, even without thrombotic manifestations, indicating an ongoing hypercoagulable condition. Moreover, venous thromboembolism (VTE) can be the first symptom of an occult malignancy in an otherwise healthy individual. The levels of laboratory markers of activation of blood coagulation parallel the development of malignancy, being the coagulant mechanisms important for both thrombogenesis and tumor progression. Besides general clinical risk factors for VTE, also disease-specific clinical factors, i.e., type and stage of the tumor, and anticancer therapies increase the thrombotic risk in these patients. Furthermore, biological factors, including the cancer cell-specific prothrombotic properties together with the host cell inflammatory response to the tumor, are relevant as well as unique players in the pathogenesis of the cancer-associated hypercoagulability. Cancer cells produce and release procoagulant and fibrinolytic proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and procoagulant microparticles. They also express adhesion molecules binding to the receptors of host vascular cells (i.e., endothelial cells, platelets, and leukocytes), thereby stimulating the prothrombotic properties of these normal cells, including the shed of cell-specific microparticles and neutrophil extracellular traps. Of interest, several genes responsible for the cellular neoplastic transformation drive the programs of hemostatic properties expressed by cancer tissues. A better understanding of such mechanisms will help the development of novel strategies to prevent and treat the Trousseau’s syndrome (i.e., cancer-associated thrombosis).
Falanga, A., Schieppati, F., & Russo, L. (2019). Pathophysiology 1. Mechanisms of Thrombosis in Cancer Patients. In Gerald Soff (a cura di), Thrombosis and Hemostasis in Cancer (pp. 11-36). Springer International Publishing [10.1007/978-3-030-20315-3_2].
|Citazione:||Falanga, A., Schieppati, F., & Russo, L. (2019). Pathophysiology 1. Mechanisms of Thrombosis in Cancer Patients. In Gerald Soff (a cura di), Thrombosis and Hemostasis in Cancer (pp. 11-36). Springer International Publishing [10.1007/978-3-030-20315-3_2].|
|Titolo:||Pathophysiology 1. Mechanisms of Thrombosis in Cancer Patients|
|Autori:||Falanga, A; Schieppati, F; Russo, L|
FALANGA, ANNA (Corresponding)
|Presenza di un coautore afferente ad Istituzioni straniere:||No|
|Tipo:||Capitolo o saggio|
|Carattere della pubblicazione:||Scientifica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Titolo del libro:||Thrombosis and Hemostasis in Cancer|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||03 - Contributo in libro|