Visual search can be guided by top-down and bottom-up processes, with either one dominating the other depending on the task (e.g., feature versus conjunction). Moreover, different search tasks bring about different expectations about the type, or frequency, of distractor stimuli. These expectations could promote top-down “task-sets” that may impact performance even when distractors are temporarily absent. Here, we characterized the role and extent of recruitment of proactive top-down processes for distractor expectation in feature and conjunction search. Participants conducted feature and conjunction search tasks for a visual target among distractors, which were either frequently presented or completely absent. The effects of the recruitment of proactive top-down processes for distractor expectation entailed slower responses, yet more accurate, on distractor-absent trials in the frequent-distractor (versus no-distractor) context of both tasks. These effects were larger in the conjunction versus feature task and were not impacted by stimulus duration and time pressure (short/present in Experiment 1, unlimited/absent in Experiment 2, respectively). Results were replicated when the presence/absence of distractors at each trial was fully predictable (Experiment 3), and when several parameters of visual search were changed (Experiment 4). Our findings indicate that top-down task-sets related to distractor expectation entail performance costs and benefits in visual search. These effects occur throughout task blocks rather than trial-to-trial, are modulated by search type, and confirm that proactive top-down processes intervene in feature search.
Petilli, M., Marini, F., & Daini, R. (2020). Distractor context manipulation in visual search: How expectations modulate proactive control. COGNITION, 196 [10.1016/j.cognition.2019.104129].
|Citazione:||Petilli, M., Marini, F., & Daini, R. (2020). Distractor context manipulation in visual search: How expectations modulate proactive control. COGNITION, 196 [10.1016/j.cognition.2019.104129].|
|Tipo:||Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico|
|Carattere della pubblicazione:||Scientifica|
|Presenza di un coautore afferente ad Istituzioni straniere:||Si|
|Titolo:||Distractor context manipulation in visual search: How expectations modulate proactive control|
|Autori:||Petilli, M; Marini, F; Daini, R|
PETILLI, MARCO ALESSANDRO (Primo) (Corresponding)
DAINI, ROBERTA (Ultimo)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.104129|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su rivista|