Evidence that bilingualism protects against age-related neurocognitive decline is mixed. One relatively consis- tent finding is that bilingual seniors have greater grey matter volume (GMV) in regions implicated in executive control (EC) and language processing. Here, we compare the neuroplastic effects of bilingual experience on the EC network of young and aging populations directly, and for the first time we evaluate the extent to which such effects may predict executive control performance across age. We used GMV as an index of neural reserve and response time (RT) performance on the Flanker task for measuring EC efficiency. In the presence of age-related widespread GM deterioration, bilinguals had greater GMV than monolinguals in key regions of interest across age. Moreover, whereas EC performance in monolingual seniors was strictly related to GMV, this was not ob- served for bilingual seniors or younger participants in either group. Interactions between expected effects-of-age and language group on the relationships between GMV and RT suggested that bilingualism affords differential benefits across the lifespan. In younger participants, greater GMV offered no behavioral benefit on EC perfor- mance, whilst it did for seniors. It thus appears that age-related cognitive decline following GMV loss in the EC network is delayed in bilinguals.

Del Maschio, N., Sulpizio, S., Gallo, F., Fedeli, D., Weekes, B., Abutalebi, J. (2018). Neuroplasticity across the lifespan and aging effect in bilinguals and monolinguals. BRAIN AND COGNITION, 125, 118-126 [10.1016/j.bandc.2018.06.007].

Neuroplasticity across the lifespan and aging effect in bilinguals and monolinguals

Simone Sulpizio;
2018

Abstract

Evidence that bilingualism protects against age-related neurocognitive decline is mixed. One relatively consis- tent finding is that bilingual seniors have greater grey matter volume (GMV) in regions implicated in executive control (EC) and language processing. Here, we compare the neuroplastic effects of bilingual experience on the EC network of young and aging populations directly, and for the first time we evaluate the extent to which such effects may predict executive control performance across age. We used GMV as an index of neural reserve and response time (RT) performance on the Flanker task for measuring EC efficiency. In the presence of age-related widespread GM deterioration, bilinguals had greater GMV than monolinguals in key regions of interest across age. Moreover, whereas EC performance in monolingual seniors was strictly related to GMV, this was not ob- served for bilingual seniors or younger participants in either group. Interactions between expected effects-of-age and language group on the relationships between GMV and RT suggested that bilingualism affords differential benefits across the lifespan. In younger participants, greater GMV offered no behavioral benefit on EC perfor- mance, whilst it did for seniors. It thus appears that age-related cognitive decline following GMV loss in the EC network is delayed in bilinguals.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
ACC; aging; bilingualism; executive control; neural reserve; VBM;
English
2018
125
118
126
reserved
Del Maschio, N., Sulpizio, S., Gallo, F., Fedeli, D., Weekes, B., Abutalebi, J. (2018). Neuroplasticity across the lifespan and aging effect in bilinguals and monolinguals. BRAIN AND COGNITION, 125, 118-126 [10.1016/j.bandc.2018.06.007].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/250133
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