Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are generally recognized as the initiators of all immune responses. PRRs bind molecular patterns associated with microorganisms or endogenous mediators released by stressed tissues. Upon ligand binding, PRRs induce the activation of an inflammatory process that ultimately leads to pathogen clearance or restoration of tissue homeostasis. PRRs govern these processes, regulating the activation of a complex network of transcription factors able to induce the appropriate immune response to a specific ligand. Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) are the first and best characterized PRR family, and for a long period of time they were believed to be autonomous proteins able to recognize and initiate all the immune response to a given stimulus. Recently this view was challenged by the discovery that so-called TLR co-receptors, such as CD14 and CD36, not only favor TLR-dependent signaling but can also transduce their own signal in a TLR-independent manner. Here we will discuss the capacity of TLR co-receptors to bind different microbial and endogenous ligands and to integrate TLR functions inducing specific signaling modules.

Di Gioia, M., Zanoni, I. (2015). Toll-like receptor co-receptors as master regulators of the immune response. MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY, 63(2), 143-152 [10.1016/j.molimm.2014.05.008].

Toll-like receptor co-receptors as master regulators of the immune response

Di Gioia, Marco
Primo
;
Zanoni, Ivan
Ultimo
2015

Abstract

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are generally recognized as the initiators of all immune responses. PRRs bind molecular patterns associated with microorganisms or endogenous mediators released by stressed tissues. Upon ligand binding, PRRs induce the activation of an inflammatory process that ultimately leads to pathogen clearance or restoration of tissue homeostasis. PRRs govern these processes, regulating the activation of a complex network of transcription factors able to induce the appropriate immune response to a specific ligand. Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) are the first and best characterized PRR family, and for a long period of time they were believed to be autonomous proteins able to recognize and initiate all the immune response to a given stimulus. Recently this view was challenged by the discovery that so-called TLR co-receptors, such as CD14 and CD36, not only favor TLR-dependent signaling but can also transduce their own signal in a TLR-independent manner. Here we will discuss the capacity of TLR co-receptors to bind different microbial and endogenous ligands and to integrate TLR functions inducing specific signaling modules.
Articolo in rivista - Review Essay
Accessory molecules; CD14; CD36; DAMP; MAMP; Toll like receptor;
Accessory molecules; CD14; CD36; DAMP; MAMP; Toll like receptor; Animals; Humans; Immunity; Models, Immunological; Signal Transduction; Toll-Like Receptors; Immunology; Molecular Biology
English
143
152
10
Di Gioia, M., Zanoni, I. (2015). Toll-like receptor co-receptors as master regulators of the immune response. MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY, 63(2), 143-152 [10.1016/j.molimm.2014.05.008].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/218714
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