Coagulation and the immune system interact in several physiological and pathological conditions, including tissue repair, host defense, and homeostatic maintenance. This network plays a key role in diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) by involving several cells (CNS resident cells, platelets, endothelium, and leukocytes) and molecular pathways (protease activity, complement factors, platelet granule content). Endothelial damage prompts platelet activation and the coagulation cascade as the first physiological step to support the rescue of damaged tissues, a flawed rescuing system ultimately producing neuroinflammation. Leukocytes, platelets, and endothelial cells are sensitive to the damage and indeed can release or respond to chemokines and cytokines (platelet factor 4, CXCL4, TNF, interleukins), and growth factors (including platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor) with platelet activation, change in capillary permeability, migration or differentiation of leukocytes. Thrombin, plasmin, activated complement factors and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), furthermore, activate intracellular transduction through complement or protease-activated receptors. Impairment of the neuro-immune hemostasis network induces acute or chronic CNS pathologies related to the neurovascular unit, either directly or by the systemic activation of its main steps. Neurons, glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) and the extracellular matrix play a crucial function in a "tetrapartite" synaptic model. Taking into account the neurovascular unit, in this review we thoroughly analyzed the influence of neuro-immune hemostasis on these five elements acting as a functional unit ("pentapartite" synapse) in the adaptive and maladaptive plasticity and discuss the relevance of these events in inflammatory, cerebrovascular, Alzheimer, neoplastic and psychiatric diseases. Finally, based on the solid reviewed data, we hypothesize a model of neuro-immune hemostatic network based on protein-protein interactions. In addition, we propose that, to better understand and favor the maintenance of adaptive plasticity, it would be useful to construct predictive molecular models, able to enlighten the regulating logic of the complex molecular network, which belongs to different cellular domains. A modeling approach would help to define how nodes of the network interact with basic cellular functions, such as mitochondrial metabolism, autophagy or apoptosis. It is expected that dynamic systems biology models might help to elucidate the fine structure of molecular events generated by blood coagulation and neuro-immune responses in several CNS diseases, thereby opening the way to more effective treatments.
De Luca, C., Colangelo, A., Alberghina, L., & Papa, M. (2018). Neuro-Immune Hemostasis: Homeostasis and Diseases in the Central Nervous System. FRONTIERS IN CELLULAR NEUROSCIENCE, 12(1), 1-18 [10.3389/fncel.2018.00459].
|Citazione:||De Luca, C., Colangelo, A., Alberghina, L., & Papa, M. (2018). Neuro-Immune Hemostasis: Homeostasis and Diseases in the Central Nervous System. FRONTIERS IN CELLULAR NEUROSCIENCE, 12(1), 1-18 [10.3389/fncel.2018.00459].|
|Tipo:||Articolo in rivista - Review Essay|
|Carattere della pubblicazione:||Scientifica|
|Presenza di un coautore afferente ad Istituzioni straniere:||No|
|Titolo:||Neuro-Immune Hemostasis: Homeostasis and Diseases in the Central Nervous System|
|Autori:||De Luca, C; Colangelo, A; Alberghina, L; Papa, M|
COLANGELO, ANNA MARIA (Co-primo) (Corresponding)
ALBERGHINA, LILIA (Penultimo)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Rivista:||FRONTIERS IN CELLULAR NEUROSCIENCE|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2018.00459|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su rivista|