BACKGROUND: It is estimated that over 80% of respirable particulate matter (PM10) in cities comes from road transport and that tire and brake wear are responsible for the 3-7% emission of it. Data on the indicators of environmental impact of tire debris (TD), originated from the tire abrasion on roads, are extremely scarce, even though TD contains chemicals (zinc and organic compounds) which can be released in the environment. METHODS: TD particle morphology was analysed with SEM, TEM and FIB instruments. TD eluates and TD organic extracts were tested at dilution series on human cell lines and Xenopus laevis embryos. 50 and 100 g/L TD were used for the eluates obtained after 24 h at pH 3 and the quantity of zinc present was measured with a ICP-AES. Eluates diluted to 1%, 10%, 50% in culture media and undiluted were used on X. laevis embryos in the FETAX test. HepG2 cells were exposed for 24 h to 0.05 - 50 mug/ml of zinc salt while A549 cells were exposed for 24, 48 and 72 h to 10, 50, 60, or 75 mug/ml of TD extract. X. laevis embryos were exposed to 50, 80, 100, or 120 mug/ml TD extract. RESULTS: The solution of undiluted 50 g/L TD produced 80.2% mortality (p < 0.01) in X. laevis embryos and this toxic effect was three times greater than that produced by 100 g/L TD. Zn accumulation in HepG2 cells was evident after 4 h exposure. A549 cells exposed to TD organic extract for 72 h presented a modified morphology, a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in DNA damage as shown by comet assay. The dose 80 mug/ml of TD extract produced 14.6% mortality in X. laevis embryos and 15.9% mortality at 120 mug/ml. Treatment with 80, 100, or 120 mug/ml TD organic extract increased from 14.8% to 37.8% malformed larvae percentages compared to 5.6% in the control. CONCLUSION: Since the amount of Zn leached from TD is related to pH, aggregation of particles and elution process, the quantity of TD present in the environment has to be taken into account. Moreover the atmospheric conditions, which may deeply influence the particle properties, have to be considered. The TD organic fraction was toxic for cells and organisms. Thus, because of its chemical components, TD may have a potential environmental impact and has to be further investigated.

Gualtieri, M., Andrioletti, M., Mantecca, P., Vismara, C., Camatini, M. (2005). Impact of tire debris on in vitro and in vivo systems. PARTICLE AND FIBRE TOXICOLOGY, 2(1), 1 [10.1186/1743-8977-2-1].

Impact of tire debris on in vitro and in vivo systems

GUALTIERI, MAURIZIO;MANTECCA, PARIDE;CAMATINI, MARINA CARLA
2005

Abstract

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that over 80% of respirable particulate matter (PM10) in cities comes from road transport and that tire and brake wear are responsible for the 3-7% emission of it. Data on the indicators of environmental impact of tire debris (TD), originated from the tire abrasion on roads, are extremely scarce, even though TD contains chemicals (zinc and organic compounds) which can be released in the environment. METHODS: TD particle morphology was analysed with SEM, TEM and FIB instruments. TD eluates and TD organic extracts were tested at dilution series on human cell lines and Xenopus laevis embryos. 50 and 100 g/L TD were used for the eluates obtained after 24 h at pH 3 and the quantity of zinc present was measured with a ICP-AES. Eluates diluted to 1%, 10%, 50% in culture media and undiluted were used on X. laevis embryos in the FETAX test. HepG2 cells were exposed for 24 h to 0.05 - 50 mug/ml of zinc salt while A549 cells were exposed for 24, 48 and 72 h to 10, 50, 60, or 75 mug/ml of TD extract. X. laevis embryos were exposed to 50, 80, 100, or 120 mug/ml TD extract. RESULTS: The solution of undiluted 50 g/L TD produced 80.2% mortality (p < 0.01) in X. laevis embryos and this toxic effect was three times greater than that produced by 100 g/L TD. Zn accumulation in HepG2 cells was evident after 4 h exposure. A549 cells exposed to TD organic extract for 72 h presented a modified morphology, a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in DNA damage as shown by comet assay. The dose 80 mug/ml of TD extract produced 14.6% mortality in X. laevis embryos and 15.9% mortality at 120 mug/ml. Treatment with 80, 100, or 120 mug/ml TD organic extract increased from 14.8% to 37.8% malformed larvae percentages compared to 5.6% in the control. CONCLUSION: Since the amount of Zn leached from TD is related to pH, aggregation of particles and elution process, the quantity of TD present in the environment has to be taken into account. Moreover the atmospheric conditions, which may deeply influence the particle properties, have to be considered. The TD organic fraction was toxic for cells and organisms. Thus, because of its chemical components, TD may have a potential environmental impact and has to be further investigated.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
PM10, Tire, A549, Xenopus
English
1
Gualtieri, M., Andrioletti, M., Mantecca, P., Vismara, C., Camatini, M. (2005). Impact of tire debris on in vitro and in vivo systems. PARTICLE AND FIBRE TOXICOLOGY, 2(1), 1 [10.1186/1743-8977-2-1].
Gualtieri, M; Andrioletti, M; Mantecca, P; Vismara, C; Camatini, M
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10281/15232
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