Background: Although several meta-analyses showed the positive effects of follow-up on the prognosis of colon cancer (CC), international guidelines are not in accordance on appropriate tests and their time frequency to optimize surveillance. Furthermore, stratified strategies based upon risk grading have not been implemented. This approach may be useful to rationalize resources. Methods: From 2006, all patients operated for an early stage CC (I, IIA, IIB) according to the 7th edition of the AJCC-2010 classification entered in a prospective surveillance program in accordance to our local guidelines. Patients who underwent surgical resection after 2009 have been excluded to guarantee at least a 5-year follow-up. Classic histopathologic prognostic factors such as grade, T and N status, lymphatic and vascular invasion were assessed. Moreover, tumor budding and tumor-to-stroma proportion were evaluated. Results: We had complete records of 196 patients. Distribution was as follows: 65 (33.2%) in stage I, 122 (62.2%) in stage IIA, and 9 (4.6%) in stage IIB. Eleven patients (5.6%) had a disease recurrence (local or distant). The median recurrence time was 20months (range 6-48). Nine patients (82%) had recurrence with 24months, and 91% were asymptomatic and detected by ultrasound or CT scan. According to the log-rank test, the risk factors with significant effect on the disease-free survival (DFS) were the number of lymph nodes<12 (p=0.027) and the vascular invasion (p=0.021), while for the overall (OS), only the vascular invasion was significant (p=0.043). By the univariate and multivariate analyses, DSF was significantly lower in patients with less than 12 nodes removed, with vascular invasion, and with left of double cancer. OS was negatively affected only by vascular invasion despite the hazard ratios were similar to DSF. Stage IIB was associated with a threefold-increased risk of reduced OS and DSF. Conclusions: Stages I and IIA appear to behave similarly and should be considered as true early stages. The detection of fibrosis and budding do not seem to add valuable information for prognosis. In early CC stages, the surveillance program should be maximized within the first two years.

Gilardoni, E., Bernasconi, D., Poli, S., Garancini, M., Luperto, M., Zucchini, N., et al. (2015). Surveillance for early stages of colon cancer: Potentials for optimizing follow-up protocols. WORLD JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY, 13(1) [10.1186/s12957-015-0674-7].

Surveillance for early stages of colon cancer: Potentials for optimizing follow-up protocols

GILARDONI, ELISA
;
BERNASCONI, DAVIDE PAOLO
Secondo
;
POLI, SILVIA;GARANCINI, MATTIA;TOTIS, MAURO;GIANOTTI, LUCA VITTORIO
Ultimo
2015

Abstract

Background: Although several meta-analyses showed the positive effects of follow-up on the prognosis of colon cancer (CC), international guidelines are not in accordance on appropriate tests and their time frequency to optimize surveillance. Furthermore, stratified strategies based upon risk grading have not been implemented. This approach may be useful to rationalize resources. Methods: From 2006, all patients operated for an early stage CC (I, IIA, IIB) according to the 7th edition of the AJCC-2010 classification entered in a prospective surveillance program in accordance to our local guidelines. Patients who underwent surgical resection after 2009 have been excluded to guarantee at least a 5-year follow-up. Classic histopathologic prognostic factors such as grade, T and N status, lymphatic and vascular invasion were assessed. Moreover, tumor budding and tumor-to-stroma proportion were evaluated. Results: We had complete records of 196 patients. Distribution was as follows: 65 (33.2%) in stage I, 122 (62.2%) in stage IIA, and 9 (4.6%) in stage IIB. Eleven patients (5.6%) had a disease recurrence (local or distant). The median recurrence time was 20months (range 6-48). Nine patients (82%) had recurrence with 24months, and 91% were asymptomatic and detected by ultrasound or CT scan. According to the log-rank test, the risk factors with significant effect on the disease-free survival (DFS) were the number of lymph nodes<12 (p=0.027) and the vascular invasion (p=0.021), while for the overall (OS), only the vascular invasion was significant (p=0.043). By the univariate and multivariate analyses, DSF was significantly lower in patients with less than 12 nodes removed, with vascular invasion, and with left of double cancer. OS was negatively affected only by vascular invasion despite the hazard ratios were similar to DSF. Stage IIB was associated with a threefold-increased risk of reduced OS and DSF. Conclusions: Stages I and IIA appear to behave similarly and should be considered as true early stages. The detection of fibrosis and budding do not seem to add valuable information for prognosis. In early CC stages, the surveillance program should be maximized within the first two years.
Articolo in rivista - Articolo scientifico
Colon cancer; Early stage; Follow-up; Surgery; Surveillance; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Colonic Neoplasms; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Lymphatic Metastasis; Male; Middle Aged; Multivariate Analysis; Neoplasm Grading; Neoplasm Invasiveness; Neoplasm Recurrence, Local; Neoplasm Staging; Prognosis; Prospective Studies; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Survival Rate; Oncology; Surgery
English
28-ago-2015
2015
13
1
260
open
Gilardoni, E., Bernasconi, D., Poli, S., Garancini, M., Luperto, M., Zucchini, N., et al. (2015). Surveillance for early stages of colon cancer: Potentials for optimizing follow-up protocols. WORLD JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY, 13(1) [10.1186/s12957-015-0674-7].
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