The main aim of the present work is to defend an ethical and universalistic prospective, founded on the conceptual categories of a materialistic and social ontology. The first chapter tries to underline critically a few relevant theoretical and ethical-political difficulties arising from a merely relativistic, not objectivistic approach to the problem of the validity of cognitions, institutions, manners of relations and social practices which are widespread through different peoples and different cultures. For this purpose, some recent contributions by authors such as Paul A. Boghossian, Diego Marconi, Giovanni Jervis are utilized but at the same time fitted in a wider conceptual context which is able to better understand the universalistic constitution of mankind as a possible outcome - but never absolutely guaranteed - of concrete historical processes. Moreover, the recourse to a social-ontological dimension of analysis allows us to grasp in the tendential generalization of the goods which are capitalistically produced, the real foundation of that "interiorized pluralism", in which G. Anders clearly identifies "the cultural grammar" more conformed to the capitalistic contemporaneity. This is by no means in contrast, but on the contrary more co-essential with today's phenomena of "armed exportation of human rights" and of religious fondamentalism. These phenomena are connoted by historically specific features which are not determinable outside the present reproductive dynamics of the capitalistic way of production and all the effects, tensions and conflicts they generate. The second chapter aims at defining a few concepts which are essential to outline a materialistic social ontology that considers the problems of ethics as a result of the connection of two ontological levels: the objective, material-natural determination of man, and the general space of the social reproduction as a whole in its different historical configurations. Through the recovery of the notion af human nature, considered as a complex of determinated cognitive and emotional predispositions, which are not boundless malleable (Noam Chomsky, Steven Pinker, Francesco Ferretti, Giorgio Vallortigara,etc.) and which are subtended to all cultures, the centrality of that self-reflecting "opening" to the possible, marking the morality of our species (Zygmunt Bauman, Costanzo Preve, Edoardo Boncinelli, etc.), is underlined. It is thanks to it - not disjoined from a set of other faculties - and to its acting in practical historical alternatives that men can universalistically make a problem of the ways of social expression of their fundamental hedonistic and eudaemonistical trend (although never reaching a self-consciousness which is completely transparent and immune from renewed estrangements). In the field of this theoretical layout, mixing G. Lukacs's social ontology and some of the important acquisitions of Chomskian linguistics, neuroscience and ethology, Martha Nussbaum's neoaristotelic approach concerning the problems of social justice and human dignity is emphasized; this approach is strenghtened and it acquires a concrete form by its integration with Lukacs's prospective of "everyday life democratisation". The third and final chapter - concerning the idea of the ever historically and socially specific character of the alternatives which are subject to the concrete ethical-social reflection - develops a few general considerations on the main ecological, anthropolocical, cultural, social and political problems, which are induced by the reproductive modalities of contemporary "absolute capitalism". The central pillar of the suggested analisys is the necessity of a radical breaking off from the logic of an almost senseless, deleterian capitalistic process of non-stop wealth accumulation, which is intended as a foolish growth of goods production.
|Data di pubblicazione:||1-feb-2010|
|Titolo:||Il bene come processo possibile concreto: natura umana e ontologia sociale|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||M-FIL/06 - STORIA DELLA FILOSOFIA|
|Corso di dottorato:||SCIENZE DELLA FORMAZIONE E DELLA COMUNICAZIONE - 47R|
|Citazione:||(2010). Il bene come processo possibile concreto: natura umana e ontologia sociale. (Tesi di dottorato, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, 2010).|
|Parole Chiave:||Human nature; social ontology; ideology; everyday life democratisation; the possible concrete process of the Good|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||07 - Tesi di dottorato Bicocca post 2009|