Groundwater resource is critical to the future of the Gaza Strip, as it is the only water resource available to satisfy the daily water needs. As future population growth will place increased stress upon water supplies, the need for effective water management is greater than ever. To plan for the sustainable use of groundwater resources in Gaza Strip, an understanding of the natural hydrologic system and quantitative of the natural hydrologic budget, are required. This thesis addresses the problems facing the groundwater management in Gaza Strip, through development of a 3D groundwater flow model and the natural hydrologic budget of the Gaza aquifer. By applying the groundwater model to future scenarios, the impacts of variable pumping and recharge on the groundwater level in order to control sea water intrusion has been quantified and assessed. Based on the results, recommendations are made regarding optimal solutions to control sea water intrusion in the Gaza aquifer. In order to study the aquifer behavior and the depth and extent of groundwater decline, the historical changes in groundwater levels were analyzed for the 1935 and 2009 period. For this, the kriging interpolation method was used to estimate the groundwater level based on available well data collected for the entire study area. Results show that groundwater levelsdropped by as much as 18 meters between 1935 and 2009. This drop is very important in the north and south due to over exploitation of groundwater. Chemical analyses were carried out to study the salinization process and to identify the salinity sources in the Gaza aquifer. Results show that the groundwater in Gaza aquifer is characterized by Na-Cl-SO4 and Ca-Mg-HCO3 facies. The occurrence of salinity in different parts of the aquifer is related to the presence of the seawater in the western side, and lateral inflow from the eastern border due to the hydraulic connection with brackish aquifer. This thesis discusses the vulnerability of Gaza aquifer to sea water intrusion by applying the GALDIT index method. Different thematic maps were prepared for seawater intrusion indicators and overlaid to develop the vulnerability map. The vulnerability map can be used as an additional tool to determine areas of potential saltwater intrusion and to identify the favorable zones to artificial recharge in the management model presented in this thesis. For the realization of the 3D numerical flow model, the MODFLOW code (finite difference method) was selected. The used graphical interface is GMS 6.0 (Groundwater Modeling System). The groundwater flow model was developed in order to understand and simulate the aquifer behavior and to control sea water intrusion. A careful calibration of the model was performed, in which the simulated piezometric levels are compared with field measurements to determine the validity and reliability of the model. Based on the developed transient model, 3 management scenarios were applied in order to study the impact of pumping rates and additional water resources on the groundwater level for the next 20 years. These scenarios are conceived to support coastal aquifer management plan adopted by Palestinian Water Authority for the control of the sea water intrusion. The results of the first management scenario show that the ground water level is strongly influenced by the over pumping. Two large depression zones are observed in the northern and southern Gaza Strip. Results of the second management scenario show an increasing ground water level, by several meters above mean sea level, under the effect of decreasing abstraction rates. Results of the third management scenario show an increasing groundwater level, by several meters above mean sea level, under the effect of increasing the aquifer recharge. Using treated waste water to remediate the groundwater level and control the sea water intrusion in the Gaza aquifer appears as the most practical and suitable solution for saltwater intrusion control, since the other solutions require the use of fresh water resources, which are costly and unpractical in view of the Gaza Strip situation. Therefore, using treated wastewater represents an additional renewable and reliable water source for the management of water resources in the Gaza Strip.
(2013). Groundwater management and modelling of the Gaza Strip. (Tesi di dottorato, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, 2013).
|Data di pubblicazione:||6-feb-2013|
|Titolo:||Groundwater management and modelling of the Gaza Strip|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||GEO/05 - GEOLOGIA APPLICATA|
|Corso di dottorato:||SCIENZE DELLA TERRA - 61R|
|Citazione:||(2013). Groundwater management and modelling of the Gaza Strip. (Tesi di dottorato, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, 2013).|
|Parole Chiave:||water management, MODELLING, COASTAL AQUIFER|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||07 - Tesi di dottorato Bicocca post 2009|